Volume 23, Issue 4 (winter 2018)                   IJPCP 2018, 23(4): 466-479 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mahmood Alilou M, Bakhshipour Roudsari A, Nasiri M. Structural Relationships Between Behavioral Brain Systems, Disgust Sensitivity, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. IJPCP. 2018; 23 (4) :466-479
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2592-en.html
1- PhD in Clinical Psychology, Professor Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2- MSc Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran , E-mail: mohammad.nasiritb@gmail.com
Abstract:   (876 Views)
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural relationships between behavioral brain systems, disgust sensitivity, and obsessive-compulsive disorder using structural equation modeling. It is assumed that the behavioral brain systems and disgust sensitivity in interaction with each other will lead to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Despite the prominence of this model, not enough research has been done to assess its experimental.
Methods  In a descriptive-correlation study, a sample of 340 students from Tabriz University was selected using cluster sampling method. Participants responded to Inventory system activation / inhibition of behavior (Carver and White, 1994), The Disgust Sensitivity Scale, Obsessive Compulsive Inventory- Revised (OCI-R). Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).
Results The evaluation of hypothetical model with fit indexes demonstrated that the hypothetical model fits the measurement model (CFI=0.96, NFI=0.94, and RMSEA=0.076). BIS and BAS with standardized coefficients of 0.264 and -0.241, respectively, have a significant effect on obsessive-compulsive disorder by the mediation of disgust sensitivity at the P˂0.05 level.
Conclusion The result, supporting the theoretical model for obsessive-compulsive disorder, proposes a suitable framework for the etiology of the disorder. Accordingly, high sensitivity of BIS and low sensitivity of BAS by the mediation of disgust sensitivity due to an increase in the symptoms of OCD.
Full-Text [PDF 5665 kb]   (415 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (269 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: General
Received: 2016/11/5 | Accepted: 2017/05/8 | Published: 2018/01/1

1. Mataix-Cols D, Do Rosario-Campos MC, Leckman JF. A multidimensional model of obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2005; 162(2):228-38. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.2.228 [DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.2.228]
2. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan and sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry [N. Poorafkari Persian trans]. Tehran: Shahr Ab; 2009.
3. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
4. Gray JA, McNaughton N. The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system (Oxford psychology series). New York: Oxford University Press; 2000.
5. Matthews G, Gilliland K. The personality theories of HJ. Eysenck and JA. Gray: A comparative review. Personality and Individual Differences. 1999; 26(4):583–626. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(98)00158-5 [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00158-5]
6. Gray JA. Framework for taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. In: van Goozen SHM, Van de Poll NE, Sergeant JA, Van Goozen SHM, editors. Emotions: Es-says on Emotion Theory. New Jersey: Erlbaum; 1994.
7. Meyer B, Johnson SL, Winters R. Responsiveness to threat and incentive in bipolar disorder: Relations of the BIS/BAS scales with symptoms. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 2001; 23(3):133-43. doi: 10.1023/a:1010929402770 [DOI:10.1023/A:1010929402770]
8. Gray JA. Neural systems, emotion and personality. In: Madden J, editor. Neurobiology of Learning, Emotion and Affect. New York: Raven Press; 1991.
9. Muris P, Meesters C, Spinder M. Relationships between child-and parent-reported behavioural inhibition and symptoms of anxiety and depression in nor-mal adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences. 2003; 34(5):759-71. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(02)00069-7 [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00069-7]
10. Saxena S, Rauch SL. Functional neuroimaging and the neuroanatomy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2000; 23(3):563-86. doi: 10.1016/s0193-953x(05)70181-7 [DOI:10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70181-7]
11. Baxter LR, Schwartz JM, Bergman KS, Szuba MP, Guze BH, Mazziotta JC, et al. Caudate glucose metabolic rate changes with both drug and behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1992; 49(9):681-9. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1992.01820090009002 [DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.1992.01820090009002]
12. Gray JA. Brain systems that mediate both emotion and cognition. Cognition & Emotion. 1990; 4(3):269-88. doi: 10.1080/02699939008410799 [DOI:10.1080/02699939008410799]
13. Bijttebier P, Beck I, Claes L, Vandereycken W. Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory as a framework for research on personality–psychopathology associa-tions. Clinical psychology review. 2009; 29(5):421-30. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.04.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.04.002]
14. Berger U, Anaki D. The behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) mediates major aspects of the relationship between disgust and OCD symptomology. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. 2014; 3(3):249-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jocrd.2014.06.004 [DOI:10.1016/j.jocrd.2014.06.004]
15. Olatunji BO, Haidt J, McKay D, David B. Core, animal reminder, and contamination disgust: Three kinds of disgust with distinct personality, behavior-al, physiological, and clinical correlates. Journal of Research in Personality. 2008; 42(5):1243–59. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2008.03.009 [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2008.03.009]
16. Oaten M, Stevenson RJ, Case TI. Disgust as a disease-avoidance mechanism. Psychological Bulletin. 2009; 135(2):303–21. doi: 10.1037/a0014823 [DOI:10.1037/a0014823]
17. Cisler JM, Olatunji BO, Sawchuk CN, Lohr JM. Specificity of emotional maintenance processes among contamination fears and blood–injection–injury fears. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2008; 22(5):915–23. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.09.006 [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.09.006]
18. Berle D, Starcevic V, Brakoulias V, Sammut P, Milicevic D, Hannan A, et al. Disgust propensity in obsessive–compulsive disorder: Cross-sectional and prospective relationships. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 2012; 43(1):656–63. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.09.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.09.002]
19. Olatunji BO, Ebesutani C, David B, Fan Q, McGrath PB. Disgust proneness and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in a clinical sample: Structural differen-tiation from negative affect. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2011; 25(7):932–8. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.05.006 [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.05.006]
20. Coles ME, Schofield CA, Pietrefesa AS. Behavioral inhibition and obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2006; 20(8):1118–32. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.03.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.03.003]
21. Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford; 2010.
22. Carver CS, White TL. Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1994; 67(2):319–33. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.67.2.319 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.67.2.319]
23. Poythress NG, Skeem JL, Weir J, Lilienfeld SO, Douglas KS, Edens JF, et al. Psychometric properties of Carver and White's (1994) BIS/BAS scales in a large sample of offenders. Personality and Individual Differences. 2008; 45(8):732–7. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.07.021 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2008.07.021]
24. Mohammadi N. [The psychometric properties of the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) scales among students of Shiraz University (Persian)]. Clinical Psychology & Personality. 2008; 1(28):61-68
25. Haidt J, McCauley C, Rozin P. Individual differences in sensitivity to disgust: A scale sampling seven domains of disgust elicitors. Personality and Indi-vidual Differences. 1994; 16(5):701–13. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)90212-7 [DOI:10.1016/0191-8869(94)90212-7]
26. Karsazi H, Nasiri M, Hashemi-nosratabad T. [Factor analysis and evaluation of internal structure of disgust sensitivity scale (Persian)]. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2017; 8(4):49-60.
27. Mohammadi A, Zamani R, Ladan F. [Validation of the Persian version of the obsessive-compulsive inventory-revised in a student sample (Persian)]. Psy-chological Research. 2008; 11(1-2):66-78.
28. Jöreskog KG, Sörbom D. LISREL 8.80 for Windows [Computer software]. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International, Inc; 2006.
29. Anderson JC, Gerbing DW. Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin. 1988; 103(3):411–23. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411 [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411]
30. Chou CP, Bentler PM. Estimates and tests in structural equation modeling. In: Hoyle RH, editor. Structural Equation Modeling: Concepts, Issues, and Applications. SAGE: Thousand Oaks, California; 1995.
31. Hu L, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Model-ing: A Multidisciplinary Journal. 1999; 6(1):1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118 [DOI:10.1080/10705519909540118]
32. Bentler PM. EQS structural equations program manual. Encino, California: Multivariate Software; 1995.
33. Preacher KJ, Hayes AF. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods. 2008; 40(3):879–91. doi: 10.3758/brm.40.3.879 [DOI:10.3758/BRM.40.3.879]
34. Fullana MA, Mataix-Cols D, Caseras X, Alonso P, Manuel Menchón J, Vallejo J, et al. High sensitivity to punishment and low impulsivity in obsessive-compulsive patients with hoarding symptoms. Psychiatry Research. 2004; 129(1):21–7. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2004.02.017 [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2004.02.017]
35. Kort S. Autistic traits in hoarding disorder: a comparative study between patients with hoarding disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder [MSc. thesis]. Utrecht: Utrecht University; 2012.
36. Corr PJ. Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory: Tests of the joint subsystems hypothesis of anxiety and impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences. 2002; 33(4):511–32. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(01)00170-2 [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00170-2]
37. Sellbom M, Ben-Porath YS, Bagby RM. On the hierarchical structure of mood and anxiety disorders: Confirmatory evidence and elaboration of a model of temperament markers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2008; 117(3):576–90. doi: 10.1037/a0012536 [DOI:10.1037/a0012536]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2018 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb