Volume 23, Issue 3 (Fall 2017)                   IJPCP 2017, 23(3): 348-361 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rezapour Mirsaleh Y, Ahmadi K. Psychometric Characteristics of Secondary Trauma Questionnaire (STQ) in Warfare. IJPCP. 2017; 23 (3) :348-361
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2407-en.html
1- PhD of Counseling, Assistant Professor Department of Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ardakan University
2- PhD of Counseling, Professor Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Institute of Neuroscience and Behavioral Sciences, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences , Email: kh_ahmady@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (504 Views)
Objectives The purpose of the present study was to investigate some psychometric characteristics of Secondary Trauma Questionnaire (STQ) in the wives of warfare victims.
Methods Children of warfare victims living in Yazd, Esfahan, Shiraz, and Ahvaz and studying at Shahed and Isargar Schools of present in these cities in 2011-12 academic year were the target population for this study. Of this population, 379 subjects were selected by cluster sampling method. Secondary Trauma Questionnaire (STQ), Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS), Mississippi PTSD Scale, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) were used to collect the data. Confirmation factor analysis, Pearson correlation, and independent samples t-test were used to analyze the data.
Results Findings of confirmation factor analysis revealed that STQ, similar to the one approved by the developers of this scale had a one-factor structure in Iranian samples. Face validity of STQ using item impact method and content validity of this scale using Content Validity Index (CVI) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR) were confirmed. There were significantly high correlations among the STQ scores of participants and STSS, PTSD Scale, and DASS that approved the convergent validity of the scale (P<0.01). By using STQ, we were able to discriminate the group of subjects with high mental health from those with low mental health (discriminant validity).
Conclusion The Farsi version of secondary trauma scale was valid and reliable for the wives of Iranian warfare victims.
 
Full-Text [PDF 5773 kb]   (159 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (36 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: General
Received: 2015/12/13 | Accepted: 2017/01/17

References
1. Evans L, Mchugh T, Hopwood M, Watt C. Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and family functioning of vietnam veterans and their partners. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2003; 37(6):765–72. doi: 10.1080/j.1440-1614.2003.01267.x [DOI:10.1080/j.1440-1614.2003.01267.x]
2. Solomon Z. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder in military situations. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2001; 62(17):11-5. [PMID]
3. Figley CR. Burnout as systematic traumatic stress: A model for helping traumatized family members. In: Figley CR, editor. Burnout in families: The systemic costs of caring. New York: CRC Press; 1998.
4. Dekel R. Posttraumatic distress and growth among wives of prisoners of war: The contribution of husbands' posttraumatic stress disorder and wives' own attachment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 2007; 77(3):419. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.77.3.419 [DOI:10.1037/0002-9432.77.3.419]
5. Dirkzwager AJE, Bramsen I, Adèr H, van der Ploeg HM. Secondary traumatization in partners and parents of dutch peacekeeping soldiers. Journal of Family Psychology. 2005; 19(2):217–26. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.19.2.217 [DOI:10.1037/0893-3200.19.2.217]
6. Figley CR. Compassion fatigue: Psychotherapists' chronic lack of self care. Journal of clinical psychology. 2002; 58(11):1433-41. doi: 10.1002/jclp.10090 [DOI:10.1002/jclp.10090]
7. Goff BSN, Crow JR, Reisbig AMJ, Hamilton S. The impact of soldiers' deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan: Secondary traumatic stress in female partners. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy. 2009; 8(4):291–305. doi: 10.1080/15332690903246085 [DOI:10.1080/15332690903246085]
8. Canfield J. Secondary traumatization, burnout, and vicarious traumatization. Smith College Studies in Social Work. 2005; 75(2):81–101. doi: 10.1300/j497v75n02_06 [DOI:10.1300/J497v75n02_06]
9. Jenkins SR, Baird S. Secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma: A validational study. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2002; 15(5):423–32. doi: 10.1023/a:1020193526843 [DOI:10.1023/A:1020193526843]
10. Figley CR. Compassion fatigue: Coping with secondary traumatic stress disorder in those who treat the traumatized (Psychosocial stress series). New York: Brunner/Mazel; 1995.
11. Bride BE, Robinson MM, Yegidis B, Figley CR. Development and validation of the secondary traumatic stress scale. Research on Social Work Practice. 2004; 14(1):27–35. doi: 10.1177/1049731503254106 [DOI:10.1177/1049731503254106]
12. Motta RW, Joseph JM, Rose RD, Suozzi JM, Leiderman LJ. Secondary trauma: Assessing inter generational transmission of war experiences with a modified Stroop procedure. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1997; 53(8):895-903. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-4679(199712)53:8<895::aid-jclp14>3.0.co; 2-f
13. Motta R. Discriminant validation of the modified secondary trauma questionnaire. Journal of Psychotherapy in Independent Practice. 2002; 2(4):17–24. doi: 10.1300/j288v02n04_02 [DOI:10.1300/J288v02n04_02]
14. Motta RW, Kefer JM, Hertz MD, Hafeez S. Initial evaluation of the secondary trauma questionnaire. Psychological Reports. 1999; 85(3):997–1002. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1999.85.3.997 [DOI:10.2466/pr0.1999.85.3.997]
15. Lombardo KL, Motta RW. Secondary trauma in children of parents with mental illness. Traumatology. 2008; 14(3):57–67. doi: 10.1177/1534765608320331 [DOI:10.1177/1534765608320331]
16. Motta RW. Secondary trauma in children and school personnel. Journal of Applied School Psychology. 2012; 28(3):256–69. doi: 10.1080/15377903.2012.695767 [DOI:10.1080/15377903.2012.695767]
17. Zimering R, Munroe J, Gulliver SB. Secondary traumatization in mental health care providers. Psychiatric Times. 2003; 20(4):24-36.
18. Renshaw KD, Allen ES, Rhoades GK, Blais RK, Markman HJ, Stanley SM. Distress in spouses of service members with symptoms of combat-related PTSD: Secondary traumatic stress or general psychological distress. Journal of Family Psychology. 2011; 25(4):461–9. doi: 10.1037/a0023994 [DOI:10.1037/a0023994]
19. Human HA. [Educational and psychological measurement and technique of developing the test (Persian)]. Tehran: Selseleh; 2001.
20. Crowne DP, Marlowe D. A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology. 1960; 24(4):349–54. Doi: 10.1037/h0047358 [DOI:10.1037/h0047358]
21. Motta RW, Newman CL, Lombardo KL, Silverman MA. Objective assessment of secondary trauma. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health. 2004; 6(2):67-74. PMID: 15298077 [PMID]
22. Gawrych AL. PTSD in firefighters and secondary trauma in their wives. New York: Hofstra University; 2010.
23. Ahmadi K, Rezapour Y, Davoudi F, Saberi M. [Investigate of validity and reliability of secondary trauma stress scale for evaluation of PTSD symptoms in samples of warfare victims' wives (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of War and Public Health. 2013; 5(3):47-57.
24. Rezapour Mirsaleh Y, Ahmadi K, Davoudi F, Mousavi SZ. [Validity, reliability, and factor structure of secondary trauma stress scale (stss) in a sample of warfare victims' children (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2014; 20(2):134-43.
25. Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) with the Beck depression and anxiety inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1995; 33(3):335–43. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-u [DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U]
26. Sahebi A, Asghari MJ, Salari RS. [Validation of depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) for an Iranian population (Persian)]. Iranian Psychologists. 2005; 4(1):299-313.
27. Vreven DL, Gudanowski DM, King LA, King DW. The civilian version of the Mississippi PTSD scale: A psychometric evaluation. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1995; 8(1):91–109. doi: 10.1002/jts.2490080107 [DOI:10.1002/jts.2490080107]
28. Gudarzi MA. [Reliability and validity of Mississippi PTSD Scale (Persian)]. Journal of Psychology. 2003; 7(2):153-78.
29. Broder HL, McGrath C, Cisneros GJ. Questionnaire development: face validity and item impact testing of the child oral health impact profile. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 2007; 35(s1):8–19. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00401.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00401.x]
30. Yaghmale F. Content validity and its estimation. Journal of Medical Education. 2009; 3(1):25-27. doi: 10.22037/jme.v3i1.870
31. Waltz CF, Strickland OL, Lenz ER. Measurement in nursing and health research. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2010.
32. Polit DF, Beck CT. The content validity index: Are you sure you know what's being reported? Critique and recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health. 2006; 29(5):489-97. doi: 10.1002/nur.20147 [DOI:10.1002/nur.20147]
33. Polit DF, Beck CT, Owen SV. Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health. 2007; 30(4):459–67. doi: 10.1002/nur.20199 [DOI:10.1002/nur.20199]
34. Lawshe CH. A qualitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology. 1975; 28(4):563–75. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x]
35. Ghasemi V. [Structural modeling in social science research (Persian)]. Tehran: Jame'e Shenasan Pub; 2010.
36. Hope NL. When caring hurts: The significance of personal meaning for wellbeing in the presence of secondary traumatic stress [Master thesis]. British Columbia: Trinity Western University; 2006.
37. Horowitz M, Wilner N, Alvarez W. Impact of event scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine. 1979; 41(3):209–18. doi: 10.1097/00006842-197905000-00004 [DOI:10.1097/00006842-197905000-00004]
38. Sabin Farrell R, Turpin G. Vicarious traumatization: Implications for the mental health of health workers. Clinical Psychology Review. 2003; 23(3):449–80. doi: 10.1016/s0272-7358(03)00030-8 [DOI:10.1016/S0272-7358(03)00030-8]
39. Suozzi JM, Motta RW. The relationship between combat exposure and the transfer of trauma like symptoms to offspring of veterans. Traumatology. 2004; 10(1):17–37. doi: 10.1528/trau.10.1.17.31151 [DOI:10.1528/trau.10.1.17.31151]
40. Ahmadi KB, Reshadatjoo M, Karami GR, Anisi J. [Vicarious PTSD in Sardasht chemical warfare victims' wives (Persian)]. Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2009; 3(3):195-199.
41. Kh A, Reshadatjoo M, Anisi J. [Evaluation of secondary post traumatic stress disorder in chemical warfare victims' children (Persian)]. Journal of Military Medicine. 2010; 12(3):153-9.

Send email to the article author


© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb