Volume 26, Issue 3 (Autumn- Special Issue on COVID-19 2020)                   IJPCP 2020, 26(3): 264-279 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Kazemzadeh Atoofi M, Rezaei N, Kompani F, Shirzad F, Djalalinia S. Requirements of Mental Health Services During the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Systematic Review. IJPCP 2020; 26 (3) :264-279
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-3238-en.html
1- Spiritual Health Research Center, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health (Tehran Institute of Psychiatry), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Division of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Medical Center, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- Spiritual Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
5- Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran. , shdjalalinia@gmail.com
Full-Text [PDF 6655 kb]   (3057 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (3477 Views)
Full-Text:   (3806 Views)
1. Introduction
evere crises, such as global epidemics, natural disasters, human-made emergencies, wars, and social crises, may cause widespread and irreparable disruptions in the areas of individual and social health. After the outbreak of a new viral disease was reported in Wuhan, China, in late December 2019, within a very short time, due to the speed of the spread, it became a global pandemic. With the ever-increasing number of people worldwide, Covid-19 has become a significant threat to the world’s health and economy [1, 2, 3].
Due to the diversity and complexity, as well as the severity of the consequences related to mental health and their significant prevalence in different communities and demographic subgroups, during this period, attention to various aspects of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of mental health has been considered by health policymakers and researchers. Thus, studies, on the one hand, indicate the diversity of the consequences of mental health, and on the other hand, remind that due to various factors such as people’s background, adaptability, coping skills, social support, and many other intervention factors of development of a single model for the prevention and management of mental disorders and crises would not be effective [4, 5].
Despite the importance and the urgency of the matter, it is very limited, and almost no comprehensive study has been conducted addressing the challenges to provide appropriate models and infrastructures needed for mental health services during the Covid-19 pandemic crisis [6, 7]. Therefore, it seemed necessary to evaluate and analyze the strengths and weaknesses and the most important practical points to improve mental health services provision, according to the published experiences and documents. 
Based on this, the present study, using the systematic review principles and methods, discusses mental health interventions in the epidemic crisis of Covid-19 disease. This study’s findings will be useful for a better understanding of the psychological impact and prospects of such a pandemic for the preparation of intervention programs to maintain and promote mental health.
2. Methods
To assess the Requirements of Mental Health Services during the COVID-19 all around the world. A systematic review was developed. All available related papers were searched from comprehensive international databases of PubMed and NLM Gateway (for MEDLINE), Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), and Scopus. PsychINFO and CINAHL data banks were also searched. Regardless of the study’s time or the date of publication of the results and the published articles’ language, all relevant reviews were included in the refinement processes. 
As it was not possible to conduct a formal systematic review given the nature of the publications. Instead, it was decided to conduct a mixed systematic and complementary narrative review covering different interested domains.
Quality assessment and data collection
After conducting the searches, all of the results were saved into the Endnote software. Studies with duplicate citations were excluded. In multiple publications from the same data, the most comprehensive source of data was included (Figure 1). 

Remained records refined for three sequential steps of relevancy assessment, which was run according to the evaluation of titles, abstracts, and full texts, respectively. Corresponding to the study type, the quality assessment was conducted by using the standard checklists. Data were extracted from moderate and high-quality studies. Considering the scope and objectives of the study, data were extracted by a consorting checklist, information of research and its citation, target population characteristics, methodological information of analysis (the region scope, and local or survey of the study), sample size, age, sex, and exciting outcomes. 
All of the mentioned procedures were conducted independently by two trained research experts. The kappa statistic for agreement on quality assessment was 0.94. The main investigator resolved the probable discrepancy between them.
3. Results
After excluding duplicated papers, 58 papers were selected out of 80 papers for the refining process. Three refining steps based on the titles, abstracts, and full texts led to data extraction from 4 eligible papers. Considering the importance of the problem, related findings, key points, and research findings were summarized and presented in terms of key components of infrastructure and resources, including policy for at-risk groups, different approaches to mental health service delivery, indirect contexts for mental health service delivery, follow-up attitudes, and complementary research. 
The study’s main results emphasized that many studies have focused on the consequences of physical aspects and diagnostic symptoms. In such cases, parts of mental health have been either less viewed or even neglected. In mental health consequences, immediate attention, and planning intensive programs to assess mental health, preparation for support, treatment, and prevention services are emphasized.
4. Discussion and Conclusion
In general, during the implementation of mental health interventions, to improve services and consider the limitations and challenges of implementing programs, it is necessary to pay attention to target groups’ attitudes and preferences.
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines
All included studies would be cited in all reports and all future publications. 
This article is supported by Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, and Spiritual Health Research Center of Iran University of Medical Sciences.
Authors' contributions
All authors contributed to preparing this paper.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.

  1. Ahmed MZ, Ahmed O, Aibao Z, Hanbin S, Siyu L, Ahmad A. Epidemic of COVID-19 in China and associated Psychological Problems. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 51:102092. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102092] [PMID] [PMCID]
  2. Rajkumar RP. COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 52:102066. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102066] [PMID] [PMCID]
  3. Singhal T. A review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2020; 87(4):281-6 [DOI:10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6] [PMID] [PMCID]
  4. Huang L, Lin G, Tang L, Yu L, Zhou Z. Special attention to nurses’ protection during the COVID-19 epidemic. Critical care (London, England). 2020; 24(1):120. [DOI:10.1186/s13054-020-2841-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
  5. Xiang YT, Zhao YJ, Liu ZH, Li XH, Zhao N, Cheung T, et al. The COVID-19 outbreak and psychiatric hospitals in China: Managing challenges through mental health service reform. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2020; 16(10):1741-4. [DOI:10.7150/ijbs.45072] [PMID] [PMCID]
  6. Hassan SA, Sheikh FN, Jamal S, Ezeh JK, Akhtar A. Coronavirus (COVID-19): A review of clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. Cureus. 2020; 12(3):e7355. [DOI:10.7759/cureus.7355]
  7. DePierro J, Lowe S, Katz C. Lessons learned from 9/11: Mental health perspectives on the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry Research. 2020; 288:113024 [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113024] [PMID] [PMCID]
  8. Lee AM, Wong JGWS, McAlonan GM, Cheung V, Cheung C, Sham PC, et al. Stress and psychological distress among SARS survivors 1 year after the outbreak. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie. 2007; 52(4):233-40. [DOI:10.1177/070674370705200405] [PMID]
  9. Song Z, Hu Y, Zheng S, Yang L, Zhao R. Hospital pharmacists’ pharmaceutical care for hospitalized patients with COVID-19: Recommendations and guidance from clinical experience. Research in social & administrative pharmacy: RSAP. 2021; 17(1):2027-31. [DOI:10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.03.027] [PMID] [PMCID]
  10. Liang Y, Chen M, Zheng X, Liu J. Screening for Chinese medical staff mental health by SDS and SAS during the outbreak of COVID-19. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2020; 133:110102. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110102] [PMID] [PMCID]
  11. Greenberg N, Docherty M, Gnanapragasam S, Wessely S. Managing mental health challenges faced by healthcare workers during covid-19 pandemic. The BMJ(Clinical research ed). 2020; 368:m1211. [DOI:10.1136/bmj.m1211] [PMID]
  12. Cosic K, Popovic S, Sarlija M, Kesedzic I. Impact of human disasters and COVID-19 pandemic on mental health: Potential of digital psychiatry. Psychiatria Danubina. 2020; 32(1):25-31. [DOI:10.24869/psyd.2020.25] [PMID]
  13. Gong K, Xu Z, Cai Z, Chen Y, Wang Z. Internet hospitals help prevent and control the epidemic of covid-19 in China: Multicenter user profiling study. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2020; 22(4):e18908. [DOI:10.2196/18908] [PMID] [PMCID]
  14. Judson TJ, Odisho AY, Neinstein AB, Chao J, Williams A, Miller C, et al. Rapid Design and Implementation of an Integrated Patient Self-Triage and Self-Scheduling Tool for COVID-19. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA. 2020; 27(6):860-6. [DOI:10.1093/jamia/ocaa051] [PMID] [PMCID]
  15. Bo H-X, Li W, Yang Y, Wang Y, Zhang Q, Cheung T, et al. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and attitude toward crisis mental health services among clinically stable patients with COVID-19 in China. Psychological Medicine. 2020:1-2. [DOI:10.1017/S0033291720000999] [PMID] [PMCID]
  16. D’Agostino A, Demartini B, Cavallotti S, Gambini O. Mental health services in Italy during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7(5):385-7. [DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30133-4]
  17. Kang L, Ma S, Chen M, Yang J, Wang Y, Li R, et al. Impact on mental health and perceptions of psychological care among medical and nursing staff in Wuhan during the 2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak: A cross-sectional study. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2020; 87:11-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.028] [PMID] [PMCID]
  18. Ho CS, Chee CY, Ho RC. Mental Health Strategies to Combat the Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Beyond Paranoia and Panic. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore. 2020; 49(3):155-60. [DOI:10.47102/annals-acadmedsg.202043]
  19. Navarrete-Reyes AP, Avila-Funes JA. Staying in a burning house: Perks and perils of a hotline in the times of covid-19. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2020; 68(5):E10-1. [DOI:10.1111/jgs.16479] [PMID] [PMCID]
  20. Xiao C. A novel approach of consultation on 2019 novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)-related psychological and mental problems: Structured letter therapy. Psychiatry Investigation. 2020; 17(2):175-6. [DOI:10.30773/pi.2020.0047] [PMID] [PMCID]
  21. Brownstone ND, Thibodeaux QG, Reddy VD, Myers BA, Chan SY, Bhutani T, et al. Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and biologic therapy in psoriasis: Infection risk and patient counseling in uncertain times. Dermatology and Therapy. 2020; 10(3):1-11. [DOI: 10.1007/s13555-020-00377-9] [PMCID]
  22. Chen Q, Liang M, Li Y, Guo J, Fei D, Wang L, et al. Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7(4):e15-6. [DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30078-X]
  23. Rana W, Mukhtar S, Mukhtar S. Mental health of medical workers in Pakistan during the pandemic COVID-19 outbreak. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 51:102080. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102080] [PMID] [PMCID]
  24. Percudani M, Corradin M, Moreno M, Indelicato A, Vita A. Mental health services in lombardy during COVID-19 outbreak. Psychiatry Research. 2020; 288:112980. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112980] [PMID] [PMCID]
  25. Shalev D, Shapiro PA. Epidemic psychiatry: The opportunities and challenges of COVID-19. General Hospital Psychiatry. 2020; 64:68-71. [DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2020.03.009] [PMID] [PMCID]
  26. Zhou X, Snoswell CL, Harding LE, Bambling M, Edirippulige S, Bai X, et al. The role of telehealth in reducing the mental health burden from COVID-19. Telemedicine Journal and E-Health: The Official Journal Of The American Telemedicine Association. 2020; 26(4):377-9. [DOI:10.1089/tmj.2020.0068] [PMID]
  27. Li W, Yang Y, Liu ZH, Zhao YJ, Zhang Q, Zhang L, et al. Progression of mental health services during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2020; 16(10):1732-8. [DOI:10.7150/ijbs.45120] [PMID] [PMCID]
  28. Liu S, Yang L, Zhang C, Xiang Y-T, Liu Z, Hu S, et al. Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7(4):e17-8. [DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30077-8]
  29. Bao Y, Sun Y, Meng S, Shi J, Lu L. 2019-nCoV epidemic: Address mental health care to empower society. Lancet (London, England). 2020; 395(10224):e37-8. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30309-3]
  30. Greenhalgh T, Wherton J, Shaw S, Morrison C. Video consultations for covid-19. the BMJ. 2020; 368:m998. [DOI:10.1136/bmj.m998] [PMID]
  31. Shigemura J, Ursano RJ, Morganstein JC, Kurosawa M, Benedek DM. Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Japan: Mental health consequences and target populations. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2020; 74(4):281-2. [DOI:10.1111/pcn.12988] [PMID] [PMCID]
  32. Yao H, Chen JH, Xu YF. Rethinking online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 50:102015. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102015] [PMID] [PMCID]
  33. Snoswell C, Mehrotra A, Thomas E, Smith K-L, Haydon H, Caffery L, et al. Making the most of telehealth in COVID-19 responses, and beyond. Croakey Health Media. 2020. https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:3d6cf9d
  34. Ekeland AG, Bowes A, Flottorp S. Effectiveness of telemedicine: A systematic review of reviews. International Journal of Medical Informatics. 2010; 79(11):736-71. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2010.08.006] [PMID]
Type of Study: Rewie | Subject: Psychiatry and Psychology
Received: 2020/05/18 | Accepted: 2020/09/21 | Published: 2020/11/30

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb