Volume 26, Issue 3 (Autumn- Special Issue on COVID-19 2020)                   IJPCP 2020, 26(3): 320-331 | Back to browse issues page

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Eyni S, Ebadi M, Hashemi Z. Corona Anxiety in Nurses: The Predictive Role of Perceived Social Support and Sense of Coherence. IJPCP 2020; 26 (3) :320-331
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-3236-en.html
1- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran. , sanaz.einy@yahoo.com
2- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
3- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Maragheh, East Azerbaijan, Iran.
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1. Introduction
ealthcare workers involved in the fight against corona are at high risk for depression and anxiety. Nurses are one of the most critical elements of health care because the main burden of providing services and responsibility for human life and health is on them, so they are continually experiencing severe psychological stress [1]. These days, the most common emotional reaction that nurses are dealing with is anxiety because Covidase 19 has caused concern among people, especially in the affected countries. Covid 19 is a severe threat to public health [5 ,4]. 
One of the essential sources of adaptation in stressful situations is the amount of support and attention received from loved ones. Another variable is the sense of coherence. The sense of cohesion refers to an individual’s ability to understand a particular situation and to make effective use of available resources that allows the individual to use adaptive coping strategies [23]. Therefore, due to the increased prevalence of the virus and the increase in the number of nurses’ deaths, which can be a stressor for other nurses, it is necessary to pay attention to nurses’ health. 
As one of the top 10 countries with the highest pollution levels in Iran, evaluating nurses’ knowledge of Quaid 19 could be a practical step in controlling the disease [9]. Therefore, this study aimed to predict the Corona anxiety in nurses based on perceived social support and coherence.
2. Method
 This study was descriptive-correlational in terms of practical purpose and how to collect data. The study’s statistical population consisted of all nurses working in hospitals and clinics in Rasht employed in 2020. The sample consisted of 200 nurses who participated in the survey online and through virtual networks. This method was chosen due to limited traffic when the risk of corona infection became serious in Iran. The following tools were used to collect data: Corona anxiety Scale (Alipour et al. 2020) [20], Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet et al., 1988) [38], and Sense of Coherence Inventory-(SOC)13 Scale (Antonovsky, 1987) [40]. 
The research method was as follows: the questionnaires were designed online and distributed in cyberspace, including (Telegram, WhatsApp, and Instagram) among nurses, of which 200 responses were refined and selected.
Data analyzed using the Pearson correlation test and structural equation modeling with SPSS V. 23 software. Corona anxiety was considered as a criterion variable, perceived social support, and a sense of coherence as predictor variables.
3. Results
The statistical sample was 200 nurses (Mean±SD age of 35.5±2.5 years), ranging from 25-45. Of them, 113 (56.5%) were women, and 87 (43.5%) were men. Coronavirus anxiety in nurses was perceived to have a negative and significant relationship with perceived social support and a sense of coherence (P<0.01) (Table 1). 

Regression analysis was used to explain the perceived share of perceived social support and the sense of coherence in predicting Corona anxiety in nurses. The results are as follows: before the regression analysis, a preliminary study was performed to evaluate regression assumptions. The values ​​obtained for Tolerance and VIF indicated that no incorrect belief they had, have not been violated. Because the Tolerance value of all variables is more than 0.1 and the VIF value of the variables is less than 10. The Watson Camera Test was also used to investigate the independence of errors, indicating that the errors were independent.
The multiple regression analysis results in predicting Corona anxiety in the perceived social support and sense of coherence. The predictor variables of 42% of variance indicate Corona anxiety scores among nurses (F:263/163) are significantly <0.01. The regression coefficients also show that perceived social support (P=0.036=7.46) and (P=0.001=P=0.73) inversely predict Corona anxiety in nurses. They do. Beta values showed that cohesiveness contributed most to predicting Corona anxiety in nurses.
4. Discussion and  Conclusion
The correlation coefficients showed that nurses’ Corona anxiety had a negative and significant relationship with perceived social support. The regression analysis results also showed that perceived social support of variance explains Corona anxiety scores in nurses. The findings, therefore, support the link between perceived social support and Corona anxiety in nurses. To illustrate the result, perceived social support is essential in predicting individuals’ physical and psychological health from childhood to adulthood and as a shock shield. The sticker acts against stress [16].
Regarding the relationship between Corona artery cohesion and nurses’ anxiety, the correlation coefficients showed that cohesiveness score was negatively related to nurses’ Corona anxiety. Therefore, nurses who have a strong sense of cohesion expect their stimuli to be predictable in the future or show clear and relevant behavior when confronted with a stressful event. It reduces the severity of the clinical features of Corona anxiety. In general, the perceived social support and a sense of cohesion are associated with Corona anxiety in nurses and can predict how a person will react to anxiety. Therefore, training nurses to empower them in these areas is recommended.
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

All ethical principles are considered in this article. The participants were informed about the purpose of the research and its implementation stages. They were also assured about the confidentiality of their information and were free to leave the study whenever they wished, and if desired, the research results would be available to them.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Authors' contributions
Writing – original draft, and writing – review & editing: Sanaz Eyni; Investigation, data collection: Matineh Ebadi; Data analysis: Zohreh Hashemi.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.

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Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Psychiatry and Psychology
Received: 2020/05/18 | Accepted: 2020/09/13 | Published: 2020/11/30

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