Volume 25, Issue 1 (Spring 2019)                   IJPCP 2019, 25(1): 72-83 | Back to browse issues page

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Zandi Payam A, Mirzaeidoostan Z. Online Game Addiction Relationship With Cognitive Distortion, Parenting Style, and Narcissistic Personality Traits in Students. IJPCP. 2019; 25 (1) :72-83
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2864-en.html
1- MSc., Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran. , zandipayam.arash@gmail.com
2- MSc., Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education & Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
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Extended Abstract
1. Introduction

ecause of their diverse and attractive features, online games have become one of the most popular hobbies among teenagers in recent years. The online game addiction is defined as “excessive and compulsory use of video games that lead to social and emotional problems, and the user, despite the problems, is not able to control this excessive use” [1]. The World Health Organization also announced that online game addiction should be recognized as a disease, as experts agree on the risk of addiction to these games. Although this is said to be due to the widespread expansion of online games, it is more common among young people. Mr. Yasarovich said, “it is still too early to predict the extent of the problem”. Online game addiction is a relatively new concept and there is still not enough information about the disease and its dissemination factors at the population level [2]. 
Research shows that introvert people were more addicted to online games. They were more worried about their identity and more insecure about peers [5]. These concerns about themselves and others, along with their characteristics can lead these teenagers to avoid real social activities [6]. They may also try to cover their social needs through online games, where they can interact with others remotely and in a superficial manner [7]. The negative consequences of online addiction can be classified into three broad categories: physical problems (fatigue, physical pain, reduced sleep time, eating disorder), personal life problems (conflicts with friends or family, low social participation), and professional failures (loss of work or school, poor performance) [3]. Some psychologists report the link between depression, anxiety, and symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder with online addiction [8, 9]. 
Cognitive distortion structures, introduced by Aaron, T Beck and Albert Ellis, are generally defined as false arguments that play an important role in the development of many mental disorders. According to the cognitive-behavioral model, cognitive distortion plays an important role in Internet addiction [12]. Parenting style is defined as the various, normal, and natural behaviors that are used by parents to control and socialize with their children. The results of the research showed that parents of people with Internet addiction do not have the warmth and intimacy, and their children consider their parents (especially their mothers) to be punitive and exclusionary [13]. 
Narcissistic personality is a type of personality characterized by features such as extreme fantasies about power, beauty and success, having a great deal of sensitivity to criticism, and unparalleled feelings. In fact, high narcissistic personality traits are associated with an increase in online game addiction [17]. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of cognitive distortion, parenting style, and narcissistic personality traits in online games addiction in high school boy students in Sahneh city, Iran. This research examines two hypotheses: cognitive distortion, parenting style and narcissistic personality traits have a meaningful relationship with addiction to online games in students; cognitive distortion, parenting style and narcissistic personality traits predict addiction to online games in students. .
2. Method
The research method is descriptive correlational. The statistical population included all high school students (second period) in the academic year of 2016-2017 in the city of Sahneh. Using a multistage random sampling method, a total of 200 male students were selected from the statistical population. For data collection, online gaming addiction questionnaire (Persian version of online addiction test, translated and Standardize by Zandi Payam et al. [18]), cognitive distortion questionnaire (Abdollah Zadeh and Salar cognitive distortion questionnaire), parenting styles questionnaire (Baarmind), and narcissistic personality traits questionnaire (the shortened version of a 40-item narcissistic character questionnaire designed by Ames, et al. [23]) were used. In this research, the collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and inferential statistics like correlation matrix and multivariate regression in SPSS V. 21.
3. Results
The results of the significant tests of the complete model of the correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between online addiction variables and cognitive distortion, parenting styles, and narcissistic personality traits. The findings showed that online addiction can be predicted by a linear combination of predictive variables. According to Table 1, the regression analyses indicate that the parenting style (P≤0.001, β=0.46), narcissistic personality traits (P≤0.001, β=0.34), and cognitive distortion (P≤0.225, β=0.11) can significantly predict student addiction to online games. 
4. Discussion
According to our study results, the level of narcissism and cognitive distortion is high in addicted online gamers, and the parents of addicted people have more authoritarian child-rearing style. Student addiction can lead to a drop in academic performance. Of course, in this context, the parental style plays a significant role. It seems that holding meetings at schools with the presence of parents, teachers, and psychologists to identify parenting styles, provide guidance on how parents interact and control their parenting type in dealing with children’s online gaming. Therefore, the results of this study can be used by practitioners in the field of National Computer Games and the Ministry of Sports and Youth in the area of children’s and adolescent’s health family counseling and psychotherapy. Detecting the static and dynamic variables in the process of addiction to the games helps professionals focus on these factors and organize their activities, which will result in providing more effective services to the clients.
Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines
The participants signed the informed consent form and had the right to leave the study at any time.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Authors contributions
Conceptualization: All authors; Methodology: Arash Zandipayam; Validation: All authors; Analysis: All authors; Investigation: Arash Zandipayam; Sources: Arash Zandipayam; Preparation, writing-review & editing: Arash Zandipayam; and Project administration: All authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Psychiatry and Psychology
Received: 2018/07/5 | Accepted: 2018/10/9 | Published: 2019/04/1

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