Volume 24, Issue 4 (Winter 2019)                   IJPCP 2019, 24(4): 444-457 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Amiri S, Babaei Nadilyu K, Ghasemzade M. Reliability, Validity, and Factor Structure of the Persian Version of the Children Reinforcement Sensitivity Scale. IJPCP. 2019; 24 (4) :444-457
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2838-en.html
1- PhD. in Psychology, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran. , amirysohrab@yahoo.com
2- PhD. in Psychology, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
3- MA. in Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology & Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.
Full-Text [PDF 2479 kb]   (498 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (1056 Views)
Full-Text:   (452 Views)
Extended Abstract
1. Introduction

The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) was initially recognized as anxiety and impulsiveness theory, but now it embraces neuropsychology, emotion, motivation and learning as a broad theory [2]. According to RST, the three brain systems encompass two basic types of behavior, called reward and avoidance [2], and the personality is the result of the interaction between these systems, each of which is associated with the distinctive neuro-cognitive system [1]. 
A variety of measures was used to measure RST. Developed scales to measure reinforcement sensitivity in children have few major drawbacks: 1. These scales are often based on the original RST; 2. Lack appropriate reliability and validity in children; 3. Also do not differentiate between BAS, BIS and FFFS. Accordingly, Cooper and colleagues have developed self-report questionnaire for revised RST (r-RST) in children. Although r-RST is valuable in different dimensions of the behavior, emotions, personality and pathology of children, it has not received proper attention [19]. In this research, the most important reason for the implementation of the research is not the study of the psychometric properties of the sensitivity scale to strengthen the children. Instead, this study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of reinforcement sensitivity scale in children, and whether the scale can distinguish between BAS, BIS and FFFS according to r-RST.

2. Method
In this research, we used descriptive psychometric method. The study population comprised all children of Hamadan schools in 2018 academic year. A total of 417 children were selected based on a multistage cluster sampling method. Of the total participants, 286 (68.6%) were fourth grade of elementary school, and 131(31.4%) ones were third grade, also 236 (56.7%) participants were boys and 181 (43.3%) ones were girls. The boy students’ Mean±SD age was 9.85±0.59 years and girl students’ Mean±SD age was 9.37±0.86 years. To evaluate the criterion validity, two tests of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) were simultaneously used. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and analyzed in SPSS V. 22 and LISERL 8.8.

3. Results
The confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL software, offered 3 levels of fit indices: 1. Absolute fit indices such as Chi-square index and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR); 2. Parsimony goodness-of-fit index such as Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA); and 3. Comparative Fit Index (CFI). The reliability of the test was assessed by Cronbach alpha, test-retest and split-half coefficient. The results showed that Cronbach alpha values were 0.75, 0.76 and 0.68 for the factor fight-flight system, behavioral activation system, and behavioral inhibition system respectively; re-test values for the same factors were 0.48, 0.56, 0.61 and split-half coefficient values were 0.66, 0.51, 0.67, respectively all indicating the stability of the scale. 
The correlation coefficients between the subscales with PANAS scales, indicates the construct validity of the RST in children. Bivariate correlations showed that the FFFS was significantly and negatively associated with BAS, while BIS is positively associated with BAS (Table 1). Sensitivity with other scales showed a good convergence and divergence validity (P<0.05).
Exploratory factor analysis with different rotations and using T The analysis of the main component and the varimax rotation was done. The value obtained for the qualitative sampling of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was equal to 0.252. Also, Bartlett’s test of sphericity (Chi-Square=2246.384) indicated that factor analysis is possible. Analysis of principal components showed the presence of a component with values greater than 1. The data indicated that the extracted load factors were higher than 0.40.

4. Discussion
The findings also reveal that 3 factors have a desirable internal reliability similar to factor structure of the original questionnaire. Studying the factor structure of RST and patterns of factor loadings, using confirmatory factor analysis, presents the same results as the original version. All the factor loadings were higher than 0.4. However, some items have weak load factor and thus were excluded from the factor analysis to achieve a better fit.
Investigating the RST reliability, using alpha coefficients, test-retest coefficients and split-half, revealed the appropriate reliability of the scale. The subscale’s alpha coefficients of 0.75, 0.76 and 0.68 and the values of test-retest and split-half’s coefficients suggested the suitable reliability of RST to measure the reinforcement sensitivity in children.
 


 
The validity of the RST with PANAS scales indicates validity of the RST (Cooper et al., 2016), and this correlation was significant and confirms that RST can be a good scale for measuring aspects of RST. The reliability, validity and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the desirable psychometric characteristics of RST and the present findings are consistent with the original version. The RST in children samples showed a valid tool for assessing reinforcement sensitivity. 
The calculated indices to evaluate the fit of the RST model suggested that SRMR, RMSEA, and χ²/df indices, as the most valid fit indices support the five factor model’s fit. The questionnaire for sensitization in children has shown that it is a valid tool for assessing the reinforcement sensitivity. According to the above facts, lack of valid and useful tools for assessing the reinforcement sensitivity children is a weak point of research in this area. As a result, it seems that, regardless of language and culture, and taking into account the factor load pattern, the childhood reinforcement sensitivity questionnaire is a useful tool in measuring fundamental structures that are associated with susceptibility enhancement. Clinical specimens appear to require more precision and precaution.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

All ethical principles were considered in this article. The participants were informed about the purpose of the research and its implementation stages; They were also assured about the confidentiality of their information; Moreover, They were allowed to leave the study whenever they wish, and if desired, the results of the research would be available to them.

Funding
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Authors contributions
The authors contributions is as follows: Conceptualization, data duration, analysis and drafting: Sohrab Amiri; Writing and review: Karim Babaei Nadinlui; and Data compilation: Mehdi Ghasemzadeh.

Conflict of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.


 
References
  1. Gray JA. The neuropsychology of anxiety. An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Oxford: University of Oxford; 1987.
  2. Gray JA. The psychology of fear and stress. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1987.
  3. Corr PJ. Testing problems in JA Gray’s personality theory: A commentary on Matthews and Gilliland (1999). Personality and Individual Differences. 2001; 30(2):333-52. [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00028-3]
  4. Gray JA, McNaughton N. The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000.
  5. Corr PJ. Reinforcement sensitivity theory and personality. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2004; 28(3):317-32. [DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.01.005]
  6. Gray JA, McNaughton N. The neuropsychology of anxiety: Anenquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system.Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003. [DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522713.001.0001]
  7. Carver CS, White TL. Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1994; 67(2):319-33. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.67.2.319]
  8. Torrubia R, Avila C, Moltó J, Caseras X. The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) as a measure of Gray’s anxiety and impulsivity dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences. 2001; 31(6):837-62. [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00183-5]
  9. Jackson CJ. Jackson-5 scales of revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (r-RST) and their application to dysfunctional real world outcomes. Journal of Research in Personality. 2009; 43(4):556-69. [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2009.02.007]
  10. Smederevac S, Mitrović D, Čolović P, Nikolašević Ž. Validation of the measure of revised reinforcement sensitivity theory constructs. Journal of Individual Differences. 2014; 35(1):12-21. [DOI:10.1027/1614-0001/a000121]
  11. Reuter M, Cooper AJ, Smillie LD, Markett S, Montag C. A new measure for the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory: Psychometric criteria and genetic validation. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2015; 9:38-50. [DOI:10.3389/fnsys.2015.00038] [PMID] [PMCID]
  12. Corr PJ, & Cooper AJ. The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality questionnaire [RST-PQ]: Development and validation. Psychological Assessment. 2016; 28(11):1427-40 [DOI:10.1037/pas0000273]
  13. Colder CR, Trucco EM, Lopez HI, Hawk LW, Read JP, Lengua LJ, et al. Revised reinforcement sensitivity theory and laboratory assessment of BIS and BAS in children. Journal of Research in Personality. 2011; 45(2),198-207. [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2011.01.005]
  14. Tal Gonen HS, Pearlson G, Hendler T. Moods as ups and downs of the motivation pendulum: Revisiting Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) in bipolar disorder. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2014; 8:378. [DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00378]
  15. Amodio DM, Master SL, Yee CM, Taylor SE. Neurocognitive components of the behavioral inhibition and activation systems: Implications for theories of self-regulation. Psychophysiology. 2008; 45(1):11–19. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00609.x]
  16. Harmon Jones E, Sigelman J. State anger and prefrontal brain activity: Evidence that insult-related relative left-prefrontal activation is associated with experienced anger and aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2001; 80(5):797-803. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.80.5.797]
  17. Levita L, Bois C, Healey A, Smyllie E, Papakonstantinou E, Hartley T, et al. The Behavioural Inhibition System, Anxiety And Hippocampal Volume In A Non-Clinical Population. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders. 2014; 4(1):4. [DOI:10.1186/2045-5380-4-1]
  18. Krupić D, Corr PJ, Ručević S, Križanić V, Gračanin A. Five Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) of personality questionnaires: Comparison, validity and generalization. Personality and Individual Differences. 2016; 97:19-24. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.012]
  19. Bijttebier P, Beck I, Claes L, Vandereycken W. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory as a framework for research on personality–psychopathology associations. Clinical Psychology Review. 2009; 29(5):421-30. [DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.04.002]
  20. Muris P, Meesters C, de Kanter E, Timmerman PE. Behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation system scales for children: relationships with Eysenck’s personality traits and psychopathological symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences. 2005; 38(4):831-41. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2004.06.007]
  21. Vervoort L, Wolters LH, Hogendoorn SM, De Haan E, Boer F, Prins PJ. Sensitivity of Gray’s behavioral inhibition system in clinically anxious and non-anxious children and adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences. 2010; 48(5):629-33. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2009.12.021]
  22. Colder CR, O’connor RM. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity model and child psychopathology: Laboratory and questionnaire assessment of the BAS and BIS. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2004; 32(4):435-51. [DOI:10.1023/B:JACP.0000030296.54122.b6]
  23. Cooper AJ, Stirling S, Dawe Sh, Pugnaghi G, Corr PJ. The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality in children: A new questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences. 2017; 115:65-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.028]
  24. Hu LT, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling. 1999; 6(1):1-55. [DOI:10.1080/10705519909540118]
  25. Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1988; 54(6):1063-70. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063]
  26. Bashishipour A, Dejkam M. [Confirmatory factor analysis of positive and negative affect scale (Persian)]. Journal of Psychology. 2005; 36(4):351-65.
  27. Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF, Psychology Foundation of Australia. Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. Sydney: Psychology Foundation of Australian; 1995.
  28. Afzali A, DelavarA, Borjali A, Mirzamani M. [Psychometric Properties of DASS-42 as assessed in a sample of Kermanshah high school students (Persian)]. Journal of Research in Behavioural Sciences 2008; 5(2):81-91.
  29. Jöreskog KG, Sörbom D. LISREL 8.80 for windows [Computer software]. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International; 2006.
  30. Brown TA. Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press; 2006.
  31. Schermelleh Engel K, Moosbrugger H, Müller H. Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online. 2003; 8(2):23-74.
  32. Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE. Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 2009. [PMCID]
  33. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Pearson Education; 2007. [PMCID]
  34. R, Avila C, Caseras X. Reinforcement sensitivity scales. In Corr PJ, editor. The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511819384.007]
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Psychiatry and Psychology
Received: 2018/04/26 | Accepted: 2018/10/6

References
1. Gray JA. The neuropsychology of anxiety. An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Oxford: University of Oxford; 1987.
2. Gray JA. The psychology of fear and stress. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1987.
3. Corr PJ. Testing problems in JA Gray's personality theory: A commentary on Matthews and Gilliland (1999). Personality and Individual Differences. 2001; 30(2):333-52. [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00028-3] [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00028-3]
4. Gray JA, McNaughton N. The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000.
5. Corr PJ. Reinforcement sensitivity theory and personality. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2004; 28(3):317-32. [DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.01.005] [DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.01.005]
6. Gray JA, McNaughton N. The neuropsychology of anxiety: Anenquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system.Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003. [DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522713.001.0001] [DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522713.001.0001]
7. Carver CS, White TL. Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1994; 67(2):319-33. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.67.2.319] [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.67.2.319]
8. Torrubia R, Avila C, Moltó J, Caseras X. The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) as a measure of Gray's anxiety and impulsivity dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences. 2001; 31(6):837-62. [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00183-5] [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00183-5]
9. Jackson CJ. Jackson-5 scales of revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (r-RST) and their application to dysfunctional real world outcomes. Journal of Research in Personality. 2009; 43(4):556-69. [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2009.02.007] [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2009.02.007]
10. Smederevac S, Mitrović D, Čolović P, Nikolašević Ž. Validation of the measure of revised reinforcement sensitivity theory constructs. Journal of Individual Differences. 2014; 35(1):12-21. [DOI:10.1027/1614-0001/a000121] [DOI:10.1027/1614-0001/a000121]
11. Reuter M, Cooper AJ, Smillie LD, Markett S, Montag C. A new measure for the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory: Psychometric criteria and genetic validation. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2015; 9:38-50. [DOI:10.3389/fnsys.2015.00038] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.3389/fnsys.2015.00038]
12. Corr PJ, & Cooper AJ. The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality questionnaire [RST-PQ]: Development and validation. Psychological Assessment. 2016; 28(11):1427-40 [DOI:10.1037/pas0000273] [DOI:10.1037/pas0000273]
13. Colder CR, Trucco EM, Lopez HI, Hawk LW, Read JP, Lengua LJ, et al. Revised reinforcement sensitivity theory and laboratory assessment of BIS and BAS in children. Journal of Research in Personality. 2011; 45(2),198-207. [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2011.01.005] [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2011.01.005]
14. Tal Gonen HS, Pearlson G, Hendler T. Moods as ups and downs of the motivation pendulum: Revisiting Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) in bipolar disorder. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2014; 8:378. [DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00378] [DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00378]
15. Amodio DM, Master SL, Yee CM, Taylor SE. Neurocognitive components of the behavioral inhibition and activation systems: Implications for theories of self-regulation. Psychophysiology. 2008; 45(1):11–19. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00609.x] [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00609.x]
16. Harmon Jones E, Sigelman J. State anger and prefrontal brain activity: Evidence that insult-related relative left-prefrontal activation is associated with experienced anger and aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2001; 80(5):797-803. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.80.5.797] [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.80.5.797]
17. Levita L, Bois C, Healey A, Smyllie E, Papakonstantinou E, Hartley T, et al. The Behavioural Inhibition System, Anxiety And Hippocampal Volume In A Non-Clinical Population. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders. 2014; 4(1):4. [DOI:10.1186/2045-5380-4-1] [DOI:10.1186/2045-5380-4-1]
18. Krupić D, Corr PJ, Ručević S, Križanić V, Gračanin A. Five Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) of personality questionnaires: Comparison, validity and generalization. Personality and Individual Differences. 2016; 97:19-24. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.012] [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.012]
19. Bijttebier P, Beck I, Claes L, Vandereycken W. Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory as a framework for research on personality–psychopathology associations. Clinical Psychology Review. 2009; 29(5):421-30. [DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.04.002] [DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.04.002]
20. Muris P, Meesters C, de Kanter E, Timmerman PE. Behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation system scales for children: relationships with Eysenck's personality traits and psychopathological symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences. 2005; 38(4):831-41. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2004.06.007] [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2004.06.007]
21. Vervoort L, Wolters LH, Hogendoorn SM, De Haan E, Boer F, Prins PJ. Sensitivity of Gray's behavioral inhibition system in clinically anxious and non-anxious children and adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences. 2010; 48(5):629-33. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2009.12.021] [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2009.12.021]
22. Colder CR, O'connor RM. Gray's reinforcement sensitivity model and child psychopathology: Laboratory and questionnaire assessment of the BAS and BIS. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2004; 32(4):435-51. [DOI:10.1023/B:JACP.0000030296.54122.b6] [DOI:10.1023/B:JACP.0000030296.54122.b6]
23. Cooper AJ, Stirling S, Dawe Sh, Pugnaghi G, Corr PJ. The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality in children: A new questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences. 2017; 115:65-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.028] [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.028]
24. Hu LT, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling. 1999; 6(1):1-55. [DOI:10.1080/10705519909540118] [DOI:10.1080/10705519909540118]
25. Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1988; 54(6):1063-70. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063] [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063]
26. Bashishipour A, Dejkam M. [Confirmatory factor analysis of positive and negative affect scale (Persian)]. Journal of Psychology. 2005; 36(4):351-65.
27. Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF, Psychology Foundation of Australia. Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. Sydney: Psychology Foundation of Australian; 1995.
28. Afzali A, DelavarA, Borjali A, Mirzamani M. [Psychometric Properties of DASS-42 as assessed in a sample of Kermanshah high school students (Persian)]. Journal of Research in Behavioural Sciences 2008; 5(2):81-91.
29. Jöreskog KG, Sörbom D. LISREL 8.80 for windows [Computer software]. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International; 2006.
30. Brown TA. Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press; 2006.
31. Schermelleh Engel K, Moosbrugger H, Müller H. Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online. 2003; 8(2):23-74.
32. Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE. Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 2009. [PMCID] [PMCID]
33. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Pearson Education; 2007. [PMCID] [PMCID]
34. R, Avila C, Caseras X. Reinforcement sensitivity scales. In Corr PJ, editor. The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511819384.007] [DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511819384.007]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb