Volume 24, Issue 1 (Spring 2018)                   IJPCP 2018, 24(1): 70-79 | Back to browse issues page


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Baradaran Eftekhari M, forouzan A S, mirabzadeh A, dejman M, Yousefi H. Maintaining and Promoting Techniques for Mental Health Used by Iranian Married Women: A Qualitative Study. IJPCP. 2018; 24 (1) :70-79
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2699-en.html
1- PhD in Social Determinants of Health (SDH), Assistant Professor Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran , Email:mbeftekhari200@gmail.com
2- Psychiatrist, Associate Professor Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3- Psychiatrist, Professor Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4- PhD in Clinical Neuroscience, Assistant Professor Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5- MSc Department of IT, Faculty of Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
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Extended Abstract
1. Introduction

According to WHO definition, mental health is a state of wellbeing in which the individuals can recognize their abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, work productively and fruitfully, and contribute to their communities. In other words, mental health is beyond the absence of clinical mental illness. In 2004, 1.2% of deaths in men and 2.2% of deaths in women were caused by psychological disorders. These diseases account for one third of years living with disability. In 2004, according to Noorbala et al. survey, using the General Health Questionnaire, 21% of the Iran total population (25.9% of women and 14.6% of men) suffered from mental illness. In 2008, this percentage increased up to 36% in Tehran (2 to 1 in women than men). Regarding the high prevalence of mental health  problems, especially among women and its association with other diseases and complications, the interventional programs should be executed to promote mental health. Different studies indicate that mental health promotion at the community level can reduce social damage. There are several interventional programs in mental health field. Mental health problems are prevalent especially in women all over the world. These problems have adverse effects on various aspects of life. Interventional programs to mental health promotion will be related to sociocultural structure and it is needed to know the different mechanisms and mental health promotion strategies based on married women opinions and it is the aim of this study. 
2. Method 
This is a qualitative study. Data collection started from December 2011 to July 2012. In this study, the participants were selected by purposeful sampling method out of married women, 18 to 65 years old, who were residents in District 22 of Tehran Municipality. The number of interviews was based on data saturation. Each interview lasted 1-1.5 hours, and ended when no new issues pop up. The obtained data were investigated through content analysis. 
3. Results 
Four strategies have been used by married women to promote the mental health status. The strategies are Strengthening the spiritual aspects are strengthening the spiritual aspects, learning the skills of stress management; positive thinking, self-controlling and problem solving; help seeking; and setting the priorities and avoiding daily boring tasks.
According to some participant’s opinion, behavioral characteristics like aggression, telling a lie, egoism, jealousy, vanity, irresponsibility contribute in mental health problems. “Jealous people always compare themselves with others and are not at all comfortable”. “People who are lying, are always anxious and worried, because they are afraid of revealing their lies”. Learning the life skills as stress management, problem solving and so on were other strategies for mental health promotion. Help seeking process consists of “reinforcement of believing in God”, support from others and counseling. “When I’m sad, I feel, some supernatural power helps me”. Some participants believed that despite advantages of counseling, because of its high cost and social stigma; many people do not seek counseling and it can worsen the already psychological problem. Changing the living condition, such as traveling, entertaining activities, provision of a cheerful environment  were  the  suggested  strategies  for changing the monotonous rhythm of life and dealing with the problem. Peers are particularly important in this process.
4. Discussion 
Designing the interventional programs based on married women opinions may be useful to promote mental health in married women. The present study reported and investigated the participant’s experiences through 15 in-depth interviews and its results should not be generalized to other conditions for methodological reasons (qualitative approach). All ethical issues (such as conflict of interests, plagiarism, misconduct, co-authorship, double sub-mission, etc.) have been considered carefully.
Acknowledgments
This paper was extracted from a PhD dissertation. It did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of Interest
The authors of this article hereby declare that there is no conflicts of interest.


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Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: General
Received: 2017/05/6 | Accepted: 2017/11/1 | Published: 2018/04/1

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