Volume 24, Issue 1 (Spring 2018)                   IJPCP 2018, 24(1): 92-107 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Khalili N, Panjalizadeh M E, Jahani Y. Validation of the Brief Persian Version of the Affective Temperament Auto-Questionnaire TEMPS-A . IJPCP. 2018; 24 (1) :92-107
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2665-en.html
1- Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Neuropharmacology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. , Email: navidkhalili2000@yahoo.com
2- Modeling in Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
3- Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. 5. Modeling in Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Ira
Full-Text [PDF 3507 kb]   (758 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (1852 Views)
Full-Text:   (792 Views)
Extended Abstract
1. Introduction

Kraepelin introduced four affective temperaments: depression, mania, irritability, and cyclothymia. Subsequently, Akiskal et al. in Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego operationalized the affective temperaments by developing a semi-structured interview (TEMPS-I) that emphasized the four Kraepelinian temperaments. In 1998, the generalized anxious temperament was introduced as an additional dimension. Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) was developed in 2005 and enriched with the addition of anxious temperament.
Affective temperaments have been suggested as subclinical trait manifestations of mood disorders and potential contributors to the bipolar spectrum. They reflect an increased predisposition for developing affective disorders. Some investigators also demonstrated an association between affective temperaments and personality disorders, such as borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, and avoidant disorders. 
To date, the TEMPS-A has been translated into more than 25 languages and validated accordingly. Previous studies indicated that shortened forms of the questionnaire could be used with the same validity and reliability as the original version. The primary objective of the present study was to validate a brief Persian version of the instrument. Based on the experience of other researchers, we decided to develop a short form that contained a maximum of eight questions for each subscale. In addition, we also aimed to estimate the relative prevalence of each temperament in the general population of Iran.
2. Method
The study sample consisted of 694 clinically well students from Shahid Bahonar University in Kerman, Iran. The cohort comprised of 42.9% (298) males and 57.1% (396) females. The mean(SD) of the female students was 23.04(2.61) years, while that of the males was 23.37(2.46) years. The participants were from various cities of origin, although 70% originated from two southeastern provinces of Kerman and Sistan-Baluchestan. After translation and back-translation, the Persian translation of the 110-item TEMPS-A was provided to the participants. 
The subscales of the Persian TEMPS-A were derived by exploratory factor analysis using the principal component method and varimax rotation. A forced five-factor solution was applied. A maximum number of eight items were utilized in each subscale. To maximize the discriminative power, the items were assigned to factors only if they exhibited a loading >0.34 on specific factors and loading <0.28 on any other factor. Items that loaded well only on a subscale other than the original were assigned to a new subscale if the meaning carried by the items could be reasonably associated with the initial subscale.
The internal consistency of each subscale of the short Persian version was examined using coefficient α. For each subscale, a score of 100 was divided equally among the items. The correlation between the subscales of the brief Persian TEMPS-A was investigated via Pearson’s correlations. The differences in the subscales between genders were assessed using the Mann–Whitney U test. Also, the Pearson’s correlations among the subscales of the short Persian version and their counterparts in the 110-item Persian translation were measured. 
3. Results
The five-factor solution was applied for exploratory factor analysis (principal-component method and varimax rotation). The composition of the subscales of the brief Persian version of TEMPS-A contained the following items for the specific temperaments: (1) 65, 67, 76, 78, 80, and 93 for irritability, (2) 64, 66, 94, 96, 101, and 107 for anxiety, (3) items 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 13, 28, and 32 for dysthymia, (4) 25, 27, 39, 40, 55, 57, and 70 for cyclothymia, and (5) 43, 44, 45, 47, 58, 59, 60, and 62 for hyperthymia. The internal consistency of the factors was acceptable. The subscales of the five temperaments showed Cronbach’s alpha as 0.63, 0.63, 0.66, 0.6, and 0.6, respectively.
The anxiety temperament factor was significantly related to both the dysthymia and irritability subscales, as evidenced by 0.40 coefficient of correlation. Irritable and dysthymic factors showed a significant correlation coefficient of 0.25 with each other. Hyperthymic temperament exhibited a negative and significant correlation coefficient of -0.09 with both dysthymic and anxious factors. Cyclothymic factor demonstrated the lowest correlation coefficients that were nonsignificant. 
Moreover, male subjects had significantly high scores on the cyclothymic factor, whereas the female subjects represented significantly high scores on the dysthymia, anxiety, and irritability subscales of the brief Persian TEMPS-A. The Pearson coefficients of correlation between the subscales of the short Persian version and similar subscales from the Persian translation of the 110-item TEMPS-A were 0.76, 0.48, 0.67, 0.78, and 0.74 for the dysthymic, cyclothymic, anxious, hyperthymic, and irritable temperaments, respectively (P<0.01 level, two-tailed).
4. Discussion
The brief Persian version of the TEMPS-A showed acceptable validity and reliability for future local research. An adequate level of correlation between the factors of the Persian version and their counterparts in the original version was established. Similar to most of the other studies, the current research found low negative correlations between the hyperthymic temperament and both the dysthymic and anxious temperaments. In the current study, the strongest correlations were shown by anxious-dysthymic and anxious-irritable pairs of temperaments, followed by that between the irritable and dysthymic temperaments. In contrast to the present analysis, a majority of the previous studies found high correlations between the cyclothymic temperament and the anxious, dysthymic, and irritable temperaments. 
Despite some minor differences with other international studies, the results of the current study cohered with the theoretical considerations and empirical evidence in most aspects. Five factors, including the original version of the questionnaire, were confirmed and found to be adequately correlated with the counterpart subscales from the original version. We found that the scale was a psychometrically sound instrument for investigating affective temperaments through epidemiological and genetic studies in Iran. However, assessment of the psychometric properties of the scale based on the clinical samples is required to enhance the replicability of such explorations in clinical practice.
This paper was financially supported by Kerman Neuroscience Research Center. We would like to thank Dr. Shahrokh S. Gudarzi for translation and back-translation process.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

  1. Akiskal HS, Mallya G. Criteria for the “soft” bipolar spectrum: treatment implications. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. 1987; 23(1):68-73. PMID: 3602332
  2. Akiskal HS. Delineating irritable–choleric and hyperthymic temperaments as variants of cyclothymia. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1992; 6(4):326–42. doi: 10.1521/pedi.1992.6.4.326
  3. Akiskal HS. Toward a definition of generalized anxiety disorder as an anxious temperament type. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1998; 98(s393):66–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1998.tb05969.x
  4. Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Haykal RF, Manning JS, Connor PD. TEMPS-A: Progress towards validation of a self-rated clinical version of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005; 85(1-2):3–16. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2004.12.001
  5. Signoretta S, Maremmani I, Liguori A, Perugi G, Akiskal HS. Affective temperament traits measured by TEMPS-I and emotional–behavioral problems in clinically-well children, adolescents, and young adults. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005; 85:169–180. PMID: 15780687
  6. Akiskal HS, Pinto O. The evolving bipolar spectrum. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 1999; 22(3):517–34. doi: 10.1016/s0193-953x(05)70093-9
  7. Akiskal HS. Toward a temperament-based approach to depression: implications for neurobiologic research. Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology. 1995; 49:99–112. PMID: 7653337
  8. Akiskal HS. Subaffective disorders: dysthymic, cyclothymic, and bipolar II disorders in the “borderline” realm. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 1981; 4(1):25-46. PMID: 7232236
  9. Perugi G, Akiskal H., Lattanzi L, Cecconi D, Mastrocinque C, Patronelli A, et al. The high prevalence of “Soft” bipolar (II) features in atypical depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 1998; 39(2):63–71. doi: 10.1016/s0010-440x(98)90080-3
  10. Woodruff E, Genaro LT, Landeira-Fernandez J, Cheniaux E, Laks J, Jean-Louis G, et al. Validation of the Brazilian brief version of the temperament auto-questionnaire TEMPS-A: The brief TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2011; 134(1-3):65–76. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.02.005
  11. Akiskal HS, Mendlowicz MV, Jean-Louis G, Rapaport MH, Kelsoe JR, Gillin JC, et al. TEMPS-A: Validation of a short version of a self-rated instrument designed to measure variations in temperament. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005; 85(1-2):45–52. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2003.10.012
  12. Erfurth A, Gerlach AL, Hellweg I, Boenigk I, Michael N, Akiskal HS. Studies on a German (Münster) version of the temperament auto-questionnaire TEMPS-A: Construction and validation of the briefTEMPS-M. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005; 85(1-2):53–69. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0327(03)00102-2
  13. Matsumoto S, Akiyama T, Tsuda H, Miyake Y, Kawamura Y, Noda T, et al. Reliability and validity of TEMPS-A in a Japanese non-clinical population: Application to unipolar and bipolar depressives. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005; 85(1-2):85–92. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2003.10.001
  14.  MacCallum RC, Widaman KF, Preacher KJ, Hong S. Sample size in factor analysis: The role of model error. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 2001; 36(4):611–37. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr3604_06
  15. Bryant FB, Yarnold PR. Principal components analysis and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In: Grimm LG, Yarnold PR, editors. Reading and Understanding MultivariateStatistics. Washington DC: American Psychological Association; 1995.  
  16. Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika. 1951; 16(3):297–334. doi: 10.1007/bf02310555
  17. Karam EG, Mneimneh Z, Salamoun M, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Psychometric properties of the Lebanese–Arabic TEMPS-A: A national epidemiologic study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005; 87(2-3):169–83. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2005.02.010 
  18. Borkowska A, Rybakowski JK, Drozdz W, Bielinski M, Kosmowska M, Rajewska-Rager A, et al. Polish validation of the TEMPS-A: The profile of affective temperaments in a college student population. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2010; 123(1-3):36–41. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.09.024
  19. Lin K, Xu G, Miao G, Ning Y, Ouyang H, Chen X, et al. Psychometric properties of the Chinese (Mandarin) TEMPS-A: A population study of 985 non-clinical subjects in China. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2013; 147(1-3):29–33. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.12.024
  20. Ristić-Ignjatović D, Hinić D, Bessonov D, Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK, Ristić B. Towards validation of the short TEMPS-A in non-clinical adult population in Serbia. Journal of Affective Disorder. 2014; 164:43–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.04.005
  21. Leung CM, Mak ADP, Xiang YT, Lee S, Yan CTY, Leung T, et al. Psychometric properties of the Hong Kong Chinese (Cantonese) TEMPS-A in medical students. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2015; 170:23–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.08.026
  22. Rózsa S, Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Szili I, Rihmer A, Kő N, et al. A study of affective temperaments in Hungary: Internal consistency and concurrent validity of the TEMPS-A against the TCI and NEO-PI-R. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2008; 106(1-2):45–53. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2007.03.016
  23. Placidi G, Maremmani I, Signoretta S, Liguori A, Akiskal H. A prospective study of stability and change over 2 years of affective temperaments in 14–18 year-old Italian high school students. Journal of Affective Disorders . 1998; 51(2):199–208. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0327(98)00182-7
  24. Fountoulakis KN, Siamouli M, Magiria M, Pantoula E, Moutou K, Kemeridou M, et al. Standardization of the TEMPS-A in the Greek general population. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014; 158:19–29. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.030
  25. Maser JD. Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Press; 1990.
  26. Vahip S, Kesebir S, Alkan M, Yazici O, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Affective temperaments in clinically-well subjects in Turkey: Initial psychometric data on the TEMPS-A. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005; 85(1-2):113-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2003.10.011
  27. Blöink R, Brieger P, Akiskal HS, Marneros A. Factorial structure and internal consistency of the German TEMPS-A scale: Validation against the NEO-FFI questionnaire. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005; 85(1-2):77–83. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0327(03)00101-0
  28. Figueira ML, Caeiro L, Ferro A, Severino L, Duarte PM, Abreu M, et al. Validation of the temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A): Portuguese-Lisbon version. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2008; 111(2-3):193–203. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2008.03.001
  29. Vázquez GH, Nasetta S, Mercado B, Romero E, Tifner S, Ramón M del L, et al. Validation of the TEMPS-A Buenos Aires: Spanish psychometric validation of affective temperaments in a population study of Argentina. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2007; 100(1-3):23–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2006.11.028
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Psychiatry and Psychology
Received: 2017/02/23 | Accepted: 2017/07/23 | Published: 2018/04/1

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb