Volume 24, Issue 1 (Spring 2018)                   IJPCP 2018, 24(1): 80-91 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mehrad Sadr M, Khademolreza N, Akhbari S, Olamaei M, Hashemian S S. Psychometric Characteristics of Persian Version of Parenting Style Index. IJPCP. 2018; 24 (1) :80-91
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2627-en.html
1- PhD Candidate Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
2- Psychiatrist, Assistant Professor Department of Psychiatry, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health (Tehran Institute of Psychiatry), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- MSc Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
4- PhD Candidate Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran , Email:sepehr.hashemian@gmail.com
Full-Text [PDF 4574 kb]   (186 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (385 Views)
Full-Text:   (125 Views)
Extended Abstract
1. Introduction

Parenting as defined by Bradley and Caldwell is regulating the behavior and development of children with the intention to allow them to have a decent social life, adapt to the environment, and pursue their goals. According to Baumrind, one of the pioneers in the study of parenting style, socializing the child based on the wishes of the community along with retaining the sense of individual integrity is a key element of the role of parenting. The classification of parenting style that is most widely used among investigators and researchers was introduced by Martin, based on the work of Baumrind. 
They categorized the parenting styles based on two dimensions: Responsiveness (warmth) and demandingness (control). Responsiveness was characterized by kindness, acceptance, and care, whereas demandingness was characterized by limitation, interference, and ordering. The interaction of these two dimensions created four types of parenting styles: authoritative parenting style (high scores in both demandingness and responsiveness), authoritarian parenting style (high scores in demandingness and low in responsiveness), indulgent parenting style (high scores in responsiveness and low in demandingness), and neglectful parenting style (low scores in both demandingness and responsiveness). 
The research on parenting styles has repeatedly revealed that they play a critical role in the growth of individuals. From a dimensional perspective, the positive developmental achievements of children have constantly been associated with the supply of nurture (warmth and responsiveness), encouragement of independence (democracy and autonomy), and appropriate control. Furthermore, several questionnaires have been developed to measure the parenting styles in order to evaluate its importance, some of which, have been translated into Persian and have been used in Persian studies such as Baumrind Parenting Style Inventory (BPSI), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), Parenting Style Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ), Perceived parenting Style Questionnaire (PPSQ), perceived parental rearing behavior (s-EMBU), and Parenting Style Questionnaire (PSQ).
However, a questionnaire that measures the four parenting styles identified by Macaque and Martin calls for the opinion of the children about the perceived style. This questionnaire is brief and understandable and has been presented by Darling and Toyokawa, termed as the parenting style questionnaire 2 (PSI II). Parenting Style Questionnaire 1 (PSI I) was designed to measure the parenting style independent of the parenting practice as one of the goals of the questionnaire was to investigate the relationship between the parenting style and the achievement of children in a relatively large age range and population; also, the design of the questionnaire as short, conceptually simple, and reliable survey was preferable. The PSI I questionnaire consisted of three subscales of responsiveness, demandingness, and autonomy granting. 
Although the initial reliability tests in high school senior students and university freshman students showed acceptable values, that in the 7th grades students was slightly problematic. Therefore, an overview tool was used to increase the consistency and internal variability of the items while maintaining the conceptual clarity of the structure and the short format. The result was PSI II with two fundamental changes, consisting of additional items that reduced the positive bias in responses and measured the wide range of demandingness structures. Moreover, it also measures similar to a 4-point Likert format, which only harbored positive and negative options with varying degrees changed to a 5-points Likert version such that the neutral response could be selected. 
2. Method
The present study investigated the factor structure and reliability of PSI II. A total of 381 students of Hakim Sabzevari University filled out the instrument. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to investigate the factor structure of the instrument, and Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest method were employed for examining the reliability. 
3. Results
The results of the principal component with varimax rotation revealed 3- and 4-factorial solutions that explained 45.13% and 52.17%, respectively, of the total variance, respectively. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 3-factorial solution was a better indication of the data than the 4-factorial solution and that the 3-factorial solution better fits the data in the Iranian society. The Cronbach’s alpha of the instrument was 0.65 and varied from 0.53 to 0.75 for the subscales, while the correlation coefficient of test-retest was 0.77 that showed adequate reliability for the instrument. Thus, adequate reliability and fitting well with the data in the Iranian society render the 3-factor PSI II as a suitable measure for determining the perceived parenting style for screening or clinical purposes. 
After performing the exploratory factor analysis, the items of the PRQ II in the present study designated the loadings on different factors. Finally, a new nomenclature regarding the content of the items was laid, which led to the elimination of the autonomy granting factor in the questionnaire replaced by the neglect factor in the standardized questionnaire.
4. Discussion
Given the many cultural differences in the field of child-rearing, creating an independent tool from the beginning would be a suitable option. Some limitations of this study included the use of the self-report tool and the population of the study that included only the students, as well as the lack of using similar and different questionnaires for the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity. Thus, the results should be generalized with caution. Furthermore, it is recommended to carry out this study on a variety of other samples with age variations and large sample size in order to test the repeatability of the results. Finally, acceptable reliability and fitting well with the data in the Iranian society make the 3-factor PSI II as a suitable measure for determining the perceived parenting style for screening and usability in research and clinical purposes.
Acknowledgments
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest. 

 
References
  1. Bradley RH, Caldwell BM. Caregiving and the regulation of child growth and development: Describing proximal aspects of caregiving systems. Developmental Review. 1995; 15(1):38-85. doi: 10.1006/drev.1995.1002
  2. Baumrind D. Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology. 1971; 4(1, Pt.2):1–103. doi: 10.1037/h0030372
  3. Dornbusch SM, Ritter PL, Leiderman PH, Roberts DF, Fraleigh MJ. The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development. 1987; 58(5):1244-57. doi: 10.2307/1130618
  4. Maccoby EE, Martin JA. Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In: Hetherington EM, Mussen PH, editors. Handbook of Child Psychology, Socialization, Personality and Social Development. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 1983.
  5. Fan J, Zhang L. The role of perceived parenting styles in thinking styles. Learning and Individual Differences. 2014; 32:204–11. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2014.03.004
  6. Collins WA, Maccoby EE, Steinberg L, Hetherington EM, Bornstein MH. Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist. 2000; 55(2):218–32. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.55.2.218
  7. Steinberg L, Morris AS. Adolescent development. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology. 2001; 2(1):55-87. doi: 10.1891/194589501787383444
  8. Bornstein L, Bornstein MH. Parenting styles and child social development. 2nd edition. New York: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2014.
  9. Chen WW. The relations between perceived parenting styles and academic achievement in Hong Kong: The mediating role of students’ goal orientations. Learning and Individual Differences. 2015; 37:48-54. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2014.11.021
  10. Kenney SR, Lac A, Hummer JF, Grimaldi EM, LaBrie JW. Pathways of parenting style on adolescents’ college adjustment, academic achievement, and alcohol risk. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice. 2015; 17(2):186-203. doi: 10.1177/1521025115578232
  11. ZAhedani Zz, Rezaee R, Yazdani Z, Bagheri S, Nabeiei P. The influence of parenting style on academic achievement and career path. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism. 2016; 4(3):130-4. PMCID: PMC4927255
  12. Doctoroff GL, Arnold DH. Doing homework together: The relation between parenting strategies, child engagement, and achievement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 2017; 48:103–13. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2017.01.001
  13. Perry RA, Daniels LA, Bell L, Magarey AM. Facilitators and barriers to the achievement of healthy lifestyle goals: Qualitative findings from Australian parents enrolled in the peach child weight management program. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 2017; 49(1):43–52. doi: 10.1016/j.jneb.2016.08.018 
  14. Baldwin AL. Socialization and the parent-child relationship. Child Development. 1948; 19(3):127-36. doi: 10.2307/1125710
  15. García F, Gracia E. The indulgent parenting style and developmental outcomes in South European and Latin American countries. In: Selin H, editors. Parenting Across Cultures. Science Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Science. Berlin: Springer; 2014.
  16. Karim AR, Sharafat T, Mahmud AY. Cognitive emotion regulation in children as related to their parenting style, family type and gender. ournal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science. 2014; 39(2):211-20. doi: 10.3329/jasbs.v39i2.17860
  17. Liew J, Kwok O, Chang Y-p, Chang BW, Yeh YC. Parental autonomy support predicts academic achievement through emotion-related self-regulation and adaptive skills in Chinese American adolescents. Asian American Journal of Psychology. 2014; 5(3):214-22. doi: 10.1037/a0034787
  18. Hasyim NNF, Naimie Z, Abuzaid RA, Halili SH, Siraj S. The relationship between authoritative parenting style and academic achievement. Paper presented at: The Annual International Conference on Management and Technology in Knowledge, Service, Tourism & Hospitality. 23-24 August 2014; Jakarta, Indonesia.
  19. Sangawi H, Adams J, Reissland N. The impact of parenting styles on children developmental outcome: The role of academic self‐concept as a mediator. International Journal of Psychology. 2016. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12380.
  20. Merz EC, Landry SH, Montroy JJ, Williams JM. Bidirectional associations between parental responsiveness and executive function during early childhood. Social Development. 2016; 26(3):591–609. doi: 10.1111/sode.12204
  21. Soenens B, Deci EL, Vansteenkiste M. How Parents Contribute to Children’s Psychological Health: The Critical Role of Psychological Need Support. In: Wehmeyer M, Shogren K, Little T, Lopez S, editors. Development of Self-Determination Through the Life-Course. Berlin: Springer; 2017. 
  22. Baumrind D. The development of instrumental competence through socialization. In: Pick A, editor. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; 1973.
  23. Parker G, Tupling H, Brown L. A parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology. 1979; 52(1):1-10.
  24. Buri JR. Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1991; 57(1):110-9. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa5701_13
  25. Robinson CC, Mandleco B, Olsen SF, Hart CH. Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Development of a new measure. Psychological Reports. 1995; 77(3):819-30. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1995.77.3.819
  26. McClun LA, Merrell KW. Relationship of perceived parenting styles, locus of control orientation, and self‐concept among junior high age students. Psychology in the Schools. 1998; 35(4):381-90. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1520-6807(199810)35:4<381::aid-pits9>3.3.co;2-j
  27. Arrindell WA, Sanavio E, Aguilar G, Sica C, Hatzichristou C, Eisemann M, et al. The development of a short form of the EMBU: Its appraisal with students in Greece, Guatemala, Hungary and Italy. Personality and Individual Differences. 1999; 27(4):613-28. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(98)00192-5
  28. Zeinali A, Vahdat R, Garadingeh K. [The Relationship Between Parenting Style and Addiction Susceptibility in Children (Persian)]. Journal of Family Research. 2010; 6(23):335-52.
  29. Moazen T, Aghei A, Golparvar M. [Predicted Students Attachment styles based on parents parenting styles (Persian)]. Journal of Educational Sciences. 2014; 7(25):87-99.
  30. Danesh E, Rezabakhsh H, Bahmani Z, Saliminia N. [Relationship between parenting styles and sexual self esteem and its’ components in university students (Persian.)]. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2011; 5(3): 39-55. 
  31. Ghannadi F, Abdollahi MH. [The relationship between perceptions of parental behavior and early maladaptive schemas (Persian)]. Clinical Psychology Studies. 2014; 4(16):129-51.
  32. Ejei J, Lavasani M G, Malahmadi E, Khezri M. [The relationship between parenting styles and academic achievement through the mediating influences of achievement goals and academic (Persian)]. Journal of Psychology. 2011; 15(3):284-301. 
  33. Alizadeh H, Andries C. Interaction of parenting styles and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Iranian parents. Child & Family Behavior Therapy. 2002; 24(3):37-52. doi: 10.1300/j019v24n03_03
  34. Purabdoli M, Kadivar, P, Homayuni A. [To investigate the relationship between motherparenting styles and their children's perception (Persian)]. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology. 2008; 10(37):107-28.
  35. Hassani M, Fathi-Ashtiani A, Rasoolzadeh-Tabatabaei SK. [A comparison of early maladaptive schemas and perceived parental rearing behaviors in couples with problem-focused and emotion-focused coping style (Persian.)]. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2012; 6(3):9-10. 
  36. Neumeister KLS, Finch H. Perfectionism in high-ability students: Relational precursors and influences on achievement motivation. Gifted Child Quarterly. 2006; 50(3):238-51. doi: 10.1177/001698620605000304
  37. Darling N, Toyokawa T. Construction and validation of the parenting style inventory II (PSI-II). Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University; 1997.
  38. Stewart SM, Bond MH, Zaman RM, McBride-Chang C, Rao N, Ho L, et al. Functional parenting in Pakistan. International Journal of Behavioral Development. 1999; 23(3):747-70. doi; 10.1080/016502599383784
  39. Darling N, Steinberg L. Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin. 1993; 113(3):487-96. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.113.3.487
  40. Vargas C. [Perceived parenting styles influence on contraceptive use among adolescents: a retrospective study on young adults’behavior] [MSc. thesis]. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida; 2010.
  41. Ying GL. [Perceived parenting style and youth suicidality in Malaysia: Department of Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Arts and Social Science] [MSc. thesis]. Petaling Jaya: Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman; 2013.
  42. Carlo G, McGinley M, Hayes R, Batenhorst C, Wilkinson J. Parenting styles or practices? Parenting, sympathy, and prosocial behaviors among adolescents. The Journal of Genetic Psychology. 2007; 168(2):147-76. doi: 10.3200/gntp.168.2.147-176
  43. Hardy SA, Bhattacharjee A, Reed II A, Aquino K. Moral identity and psychological distance: The case of adolescent parental socialization. Journal of Adolescence. 2010; 33(1):111-23. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.04.008
  44. Bastaits K, Ponnet K, Mortelmans D. Parenting of divorced fathers and the association with children’s self-esteem. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2012; 41(12):1643-56. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9783-6
  45. Lam CB, Solmeyer AR, McHale SM. Sibling relationships and empathy across the transition to adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2012; 41(12):1657-70. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9781-8
  46. Abdul Gafor K, Kurukkan A. Construction and Validation of Scale of Parenting Style. Guru Journal of Behavioral and Social Sciences. 2014; 2(4):315-23.
  47. Batool SS, Mumtaz AN. Development and Validation of Parenting Style Scale. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research. 2015; 30(2):225-48.
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: General
Received: 2017/01/2 | Accepted: 2017/07/23 | Published: 2018/04/1

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
Write the security code in the box

Send email to the article author


© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb