Volume 24, Issue 1 (Spring 2018)                   IJPCP 2018, 24(1): 80-91 | Back to browse issues page

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Mehrad Sadr M, Khademolreza N, Akhbari S, Olamaei M, Hashemian S S. Psychometric Characteristics of Persian Version of Parenting Style Index. IJPCP. 2018; 24 (1) :80-91
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2627-en.html
1- Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
2- Department of Psychiatry, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health (Tehran Institute of Psychiatry), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran , Email:sepehr.hashemian@gmail.com
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Extended Abstract
1. Introduction

Parenting as defined by Bradley and Caldwell is regulating the behavior and development of children with the intention to allow them to have a decent social life, adapt to the environment, and pursue their goals. According to Baumrind, one of the pioneers in the study of parenting style, socializing the child based on the wishes of the community along with retaining the sense of individual integrity is a key element of the role of parenting. The classification of parenting style that is most widely used among investigators and researchers was introduced by Martin, based on the work of Baumrind. 
They categorized the parenting styles based on two dimensions: Responsiveness (warmth) and demandingness (control). Responsiveness was characterized by kindness, acceptance, and care, whereas demandingness was characterized by limitation, interference, and ordering. The interaction of these two dimensions created four types of parenting styles: authoritative parenting style (high scores in both demandingness and responsiveness), authoritarian parenting style (high scores in demandingness and low in responsiveness), indulgent parenting style (high scores in responsiveness and low in demandingness), and neglectful parenting style (low scores in both demandingness and responsiveness). 
The research on parenting styles has repeatedly revealed that they play a critical role in the growth of individuals. From a dimensional perspective, the positive developmental achievements of children have constantly been associated with the supply of nurture (warmth and responsiveness), encouragement of independence (democracy and autonomy), and appropriate control. Furthermore, several questionnaires have been developed to measure the parenting styles in order to evaluate its importance, some of which, have been translated into Persian and have been used in Persian studies such as Baumrind Parenting Style Inventory (BPSI), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), Parenting Style Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ), Perceived parenting Style Questionnaire (PPSQ), perceived parental rearing behavior (s-EMBU), and Parenting Style Questionnaire (PSQ).
However, a questionnaire that measures the four parenting styles identified by Macaque and Martin calls for the opinion of the children about the perceived style. This questionnaire is brief and understandable and has been presented by Darling and Toyokawa, termed as the parenting style questionnaire 2 (PSI II). Parenting Style Questionnaire 1 (PSI I) was designed to measure the parenting style independent of the parenting practice as one of the goals of the questionnaire was to investigate the relationship between the parenting style and the achievement of children in a relatively large age range and population; also, the design of the questionnaire as short, conceptually simple, and reliable survey was preferable. The PSI I questionnaire consisted of three subscales of responsiveness, demandingness, and autonomy granting. 
Although the initial reliability tests in high school senior students and university freshman students showed acceptable values, that in the 7th grades students was slightly problematic. Therefore, an overview tool was used to increase the consistency and internal variability of the items while maintaining the conceptual clarity of the structure and the short format. The result was PSI II with two fundamental changes, consisting of additional items that reduced the positive bias in responses and measured the wide range of demandingness structures. Moreover, it also measures similar to a 4-point Likert format, which only harbored positive and negative options with varying degrees changed to a 5-points Likert version such that the neutral response could be selected. 
2. Method
The present study investigated the factor structure and reliability of PSI II. A total of 381 students of Hakim Sabzevari University filled out the instrument. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to investigate the factor structure of the instrument, and Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest method were employed for examining the reliability. 
3. Results
The results of the principal component with varimax rotation revealed 3- and 4-factorial solutions that explained 45.13% and 52.17%, respectively, of the total variance, respectively. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 3-factorial solution was a better indication of the data than the 4-factorial solution and that the 3-factorial solution better fits the data in the Iranian society. The Cronbach’s alpha of the instrument was 0.65 and varied from 0.53 to 0.75 for the subscales, while the correlation coefficient of test-retest was 0.77 that showed adequate reliability for the instrument. Thus, adequate reliability and fitting well with the data in the Iranian society render the 3-factor PSI II as a suitable measure for determining the perceived parenting style for screening or clinical purposes. 
After performing the exploratory factor analysis, the items of the PRQ II in the present study designated the loadings on different factors. Finally, a new nomenclature regarding the content of the items was laid, which led to the elimination of the autonomy granting factor in the questionnaire replaced by the neglect factor in the standardized questionnaire.
4. Discussion
Given the many cultural differences in the field of child-rearing, creating an independent tool from the beginning would be a suitable option. Some limitations of this study included the use of the self-report tool and the population of the study that included only the students, as well as the lack of using similar and different questionnaires for the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity. Thus, the results should be generalized with caution. Furthermore, it is recommended to carry out this study on a variety of other samples with age variations and large sample size in order to test the repeatability of the results. Finally, acceptable reliability and fitting well with the data in the Iranian society make the 3-factor PSI II as a suitable measure for determining the perceived parenting style for screening and usability in research and clinical purposes.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest. 

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Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Psychiatry and Psychology
Received: 2017/01/2 | Accepted: 2017/07/23 | Published: 2018/04/1

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