Volume 23, Issue 3 (Fall 2017)                   IJPCP 2017, 23(3): 320-335 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mohammadkhani S, Bahari A, Akbarian Firoozabadi M. Attachment Styles and Depression Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Rumination. IJPCP. 2017; 23 (3) :320-335
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2606-en.html
1- PhD in Clinical Psychology, Associate Professor Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran , Email:sh.mohammadkhani@gmail.com
2- MSc. Student Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
Full-Text [PDF 7111 kb]   (434 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (1132 Views)
Full-Text:   (191 Views)
Extended Abstract
1. Introduction

The differences in “Working Models of Attachment”, assumed as the underlying basis of the differences in attachment styles, have a substantial role in person’s wellbeing. They lead people to diverse methods of emotion regulation against stressful and challenging life experiences [1]. Initial maladaptive parent-child interactions can play a negative role in the pattern of person’s future expectations and interpersonal relationships [2]. Rumination, a pathogenic coping style, is one of the constructs that is assumed as the connector of attachment styles to depression. As per the published studies on attachment theory, dysfunctional rumination is associated with attachment’s orientation. While the secure attachment is associated with regulation and adjustment of emotional experiences [3], anxious (e.g. being amazed), and avoidant attachments (e.g. emotional distance) are associated with psychological distress and tendency to rumination [4].
Although several studies have investigated the relationships between attachment, rumination, and depression, there is some ambiguity in it. Soffrey and Ehrenberg [5] concluded that anxious people are associated with higher level of rumination. On the other hand, Pearson et al [6] noticed that brooding has strong relation with elevated sensitivity to rejection, but is not associated with anxious attachment style. Therefore, further investigation is required to clarify the role of each index of attachment in relation to brooding. In addition to explaining the mediating role of rumination and investigating the anxious and avoidant indexes in relation to depression, this study also emphasizes on the dimensional model of attachment. Thus, the results of both categorical and dimensional models were compared.
2. Methods
This Ex Post Facto study with causal research design was conducted to investigate the relationship between attachment styles and development of rumination as the mediator of depression symptoms. Statistical population of the study included students of Kharazmi University, Tehran University, and Alborz University of medicine who were in their second semester in 2016. The sample size included 175 University students (74 male and 101 female) within the age range of 18 to 35 years (M=21, SD=2.75) from the faculty of technology, science, literature, and medicine by using available sampling method. Subjects answered to the questions of Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS), and Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ), which were later analyzed using variance analysis, regression, and mediation analysis. Regarding the categorical and dimensional models of attachment, the data were analyzed in two separate parts. Rumination and depression were analyzed using the three categorical (avoidant, anxious, secure) models, and the dimensional model.
3. Results
In the categorical model, depression scores of avoidant attached people were higher than both anxious attached people (P<0.01), and secure attached people (P<0.0005). Also, anxious people indicated higher depression scores than secure people (P<0.006). Moreover, avoidant (P<0.0005), and anxious people (P<0.021) have higher scores than secure people in total rumination. But in brooding (P<0.001) and reflection (P<0.012) subscales, it was just the avoidant people who have higher scores compared to secure attached people.
In the dimensional model, depression scores of anxious-avoidant group were higher than those of both the anxious (P<0.038) and secure (P<0.0005) groups. Avoidant group indicated that its depression scores are higher than that of the secure group (P<0.001). Anxious-avoidant group had higher total rumination scores than both anxious (P<0.026), and secure group (P<0.0005). Avoidant group also had higher score than secure group (P<0.018). In brooding subscale, anxious-avoidant (P<0.001) and avoidant (P<0.028) groups showed higher scores than secure group, but in reflection anxious-avoidant group scored higher than secure group (P<0.004). 
According to definition of insecure attachment in three categorical model, brooding had partial mediation role in relation to avoidance index and depression symptoms (P<0.0005). The same result was shown in dimensional model (analyses 2 and 3) (Table 1), but limiting sample to avoidant and avoidant-anxious group (analyze 3) caused full mediation and higher total effect (β=0.445), and the results of mediation analyses are shown in Table 1.
4. Conclusion 
The present study concludes that there is an association between the avoidance index and depression symptoms of attachment style, and it is stronger than anxiety. There is a significant relationship between the indexes of attachment and rumination along with its subscales, but it is stronger with brooding. On the other hand, rumination and its subscales have a close relationship with depression symptoms; however, this relation is stronger with brooding. 
Generally, activation of avoidance index in attachment system plays a crucial role in the development of rumination and depression symptoms. Our result showed that people having negative models, or whose avoidance index of attachment style is activated, tend to use a passive coping strategy called rumination that facilitates emerging depression symptoms.
Because of the inseparability of two groups (anxious and avoidant-anxious) in three categorical model of attachment, the results are not able to show the relationship between avoidant-anxious group with rumination and depression. In most of the analyses using the three categorical models, the relation of anxious attached people with depression and rumination were statistically significant (except the analyses using dimensional model). However, these significant relations are just because of the subscription between anxious group in categorical model and that of avoidant-anxious group in the dimensional model, and they are not distinguishable in the categorical model.
Acknowledgements
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The professors and all the students participating in this study are gratefully acknowledged.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declared that they had no conflicts of interest with respect to their authorship or the publication of this article.

 
References
  1. Cummings, E. M., & Cicchetti, D. Toward a transactional model of relations between attachment and depression. In: Greenberg MT, Cicchetti D, Cummings EM, editors. Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1993.
  2. Carnelley KB, Pietromonaco PR, Jaffe K. Depression, working models of others, and relationship functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1994; 66(1):127–40. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.66.1.127
  3. Cooper ML, Shaver PR, Collins NL. Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1998; 74(5):1380–97. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.5.1380
  4. Mikulincer M, Florian V, Weller A. Attachment styles, coping strategies, and posttraumatic psychological distress: The impact of the Gulf War in Israel. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1993; 64(5):817–26. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.64.5.817
  5. Marganska A, Gallagher M, Miranda R. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 2013; 83(1):131–41. doi: 10.1111/ajop.12001
  6. Ognibene TC, Collins NL. Adult attachment styles, perceived social support and coping strategies. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 1998; 15(3):323–45. doi: 10.1177/0265407598153002
  7. Ruijten T, Roelofs J, Rood L. The mediating role of rumination in the relation between quality of attachment relations and depressive symptoms in non-clinical adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2010; 20(4):452–9. doi: 10.1007/s10826-010-9412-5
  8. Bowlby J. Attachment and Loss, Vol. I: Attachment. New York: Basic Books; 1969.
  9. Main M, Kaplan N, Cassidy J. Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. JSTOR. 1985; 50(1/2):66. doi: 10.2307/3333827
  10. Hazan C, Shaver P. Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1987; 52(3):511–24. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.52.3.511
  11. Bartholomew K, Horowitz LM. Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1991; 61(2):226–44. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.61.2.226
  12. Bowlby J. Attachment and Loss: Vol. II. Separation, anxiety and Anger. London: Penguin Books Limited; 1998.
  13. Bretherton I, Munholland KA. The internal working model construct in light of contemporary neuroimaging research. In: Cassidy J, Shaver PR, editors. Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications.New York: Guilford; 2016.
  14. Margolese SK, Markiewicz D, Doyle AB. Attachment to parents, best friend, and romantic partner: Predicting different pathways to depression in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2005; 34(6):637–50. doi: 10.1007/s10964-005-8952-2
  15. Saffrey C, Ehrenberg M. When thinking hurts: Attachment, rumination, and postrelationship adjustment. Personal Relationships. 2007; 14(3):351–68. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6811.2007.00160.x
  16. Fraley RC, Shaver PR. Adult romantic attachment: Theoretical developments, emerging controversies, and unanswered questions. Review of General Psychology. 2000; 4(2):132–54. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.4.2.132
  17. Nolen Hoeksema S. Ruminative coping with depression. In: Heckhausen J, Dweck CS, editors. Motivation and self regulation across the life span. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1998.
  18. Nolen Hoeksema S, Morrow J. A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1991; 61(1):115–21. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.61.1.115
  19. Pyszczynski T, Holt K, Greenberg J. Depression, self focused attention, and expectancies for positive and negative future life events for self and others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1987; 52(5):994–1001. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.52.5.994
  20. Lanciano T, Curci A, Kafetsios K, Elia L, Zammuner VL. Attachment and dysfunctional rumination: The mediating role of Emotional Intelligence abilities. Personality and Individual Differences. 2012; 53(6):753–8. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.05.027
  21. Pearson KA, Watkins ER, Mullan EG, Moberly NJ. Psychosocial correlates of depressive rumination. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2010; 48(8):784–91. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.05.007
  22. Burnette JL, Taylor KW, Worthington EL, Forsyth DR. Attachment and trait forgivingness: The mediating role of angry rumination. Personality and Individual Differences. 2007; 42(8):1585–96. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.033
  23. Beyderman I, Young MA. Rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory as mediators of the relationship between attachment and depression. Personality and Individual Differences. 2016; 98:37–41. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.077
  24. Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory II. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation; 1996. 
  25. Fata L, Birashk B, Atefvahid MK, Dabson KS. [Meaning assignment structures/schema, emotional states and cognitive processing of emotional information: comparing two conceptual frameworks (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2005; 11(3):312-26.
  26. Stefan Dabson K, Mohammadkhani P, Massah Choulabi O. [Psychometrics characteristic of Beck Depression Inventory-II in patients with magor depressive disorder (Persian)]. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2007; 8 :82-8.
  27. Treynor W, Gonzalez R, Nolen Hoeksema S. Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2003; 27(3):247-59. doi: 10.1023/a:1023910315561
  28. Yook K, Kim KH, Suh SY, Lee KS. Intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and rumination in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2010; 24(6):623–8. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.04.003
  29. Giorgio JM, Sanflippo J, Kleiman E, Reilly D, Bender RE, Wagner CA, et al. An experiential avoidance conceptualization of depressive rumination: Three tests of the model. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2010; 48(10):1021–31. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.07.004
  30. Mohammadkhani, S., Purmand N.S., Hassanabadi, H. [An empirical test of a metacognitive model of rumination and depression in non-clinical population (Persian)]. Modern psychological research. 2013; 8(30):183-204.
  31. Baldwin MW. Relational schemas and cognition in close relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 1995; 12(4):547–52. doi: 10.1177/0265407595124008
  32. Feeney JA, Noller P. Attachment style as a predictor of adult romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1990; 58(2):281–91. Doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.58.2.281
  33. Pakdaman Sh. [Investigating the relation between attachment and sociability in adolescents (Persian)]. Psychoscience. 2004; 3(9):25-47.
  34. Zarrati I, Amin Yazdi, SA, Azad Fallah P. [Relation of emitional intelligence and attachment style (Persian)]. Advances in Cognitive Science. 2006; 8(1): 31-37.
  35. Ahadi B. [Relationship between loneliness and self esteem with students’ attachment styles (Persian)]. Journal of Psychological Studies. 2009; 5(1): 95-112. doi: 10.22051/PSY.1970.1593
  36. Taj, F., Taghipour, E., Sadeghi, M. S., & Khoskonesh, A. [The correlation of attachment styles with self-actualization in Psychotherapist in Tehran (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Career & Organizational Counseling. 2013; 5(16):28-45.
  37. Overall NC, Fletcher GJO, Friesen MD. Mapping the intimate relationship mind: Comparisons between three models of attachment representations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2003; 29(12):1479–93. doi: 10.1177/0146167203251519
  38. Ferguson G, Takane Y. Statistical analysis in psychology and education. New York: McGraw Hill; 1989.
  39. MacKinnon DP, Lockwood CM, Williams J. Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 2004; 39(1):99–128. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4
  40. Preacher KJ, Hayes AF. SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers. 2004; 36(4):717–31. doi: 10.3758/bf03206553
  41. Preacher KJ, Hayes AF. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods. 2008; 40(3):879–91. doi: 10.3758/brm.40.3.879
  42. Amani R, Majzoobi MR, Azadi Fard S. Mother infant attachment style as a predictor of depression among female students. Journal of Midwifery and Reproductive Health. 2017; 5(1):834-41.
  43. Allen JP, Moore C, Kuperminc G, Bell K. Attachment and adolescent psychosocial functioning. Child Development. 2008; 69(5):1406–19. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06220.x
  44. Kobak RR, Sudler N, Gamble W. Attachment and depressive symptoms during adolescence: A developmental pathways analysis. Development and Psychopathology. 1991; 3(04):461-74. doi: 10.1017/s095457940000763x
  45. Murphy B, Bates GW. Adult attachment style and vulnerability to depression. Personality and Individual Differences. 1997; 22(6):835–44. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(96)00277-2
  46. Nolen Hoeksema S. Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1991; 100(4):569–82. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.100.4.569
  47. Just N, Alloy LB. The response styles theory of depression: Tests and an extension of the theory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1997; 106(2):221–9. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.106.2.221
  48. Kuehner C, Weber I. Responses to depression in unipolar depressed patients: An investigation of Nolen Hoeksema's response styles theory. Psychological Medicine. 1999; 29(6):1323-33. doi: 10.1017/s0033291799001282
  49. Nolen Hoeksema S, Morrow J, Fredrickson BL. Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1993; 102(1):20–8. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.102.1.20
  50. Whitmer A, Gotlib IH. Brooding and reflection reconsidered: A factor analytic examination of rumination in currently depressed, formerly depressed, and never depressed individuals. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2011; 35(2):99–107. doi: 10.1007/s10608-011-9361-3
  51. Nolen Hoeksema S, Wisco BE, Lyubomirsky S. Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2008; 3(5):400–24. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x
  52. Zuroff DC, Fitzpatrick DK. Depressive personality styles: Implications for adult attachment. Personality and Individual Differences. 1995; 18(2):253–65. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)00136-g
  53. Diamond G, Siqueland L, Diamond GM. Attachment based family therapy for depressed adolescents: Programmatic treatment development. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2003; 6(2):107-27. PMID: 12836580
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: General
Received: 2016/11/29 | Accepted: 2017/04/15 | Published: 2017/10/1

References
1. Cummings, E. M., & Cicchetti, D. Toward a transactional model of relations between attachment and depression. In: Greenberg MT, Cicchetti D, Cummings EM, editors. Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1993.
2. Carnelley KB, Pietromonaco PR, Jaffe K. Depression, working models of others, and relationship functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1994; 66(1):127–40. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.66.1.127 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.66.1.127]
3. Cooper ML, Shaver PR, Collins NL. Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1998; 74(5):1380–97. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.5.1380 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.74.5.1380]
4. Mikulincer M, Florian V, Weller A. Attachment styles, coping strategies, and posttraumatic psychological distress: The impact of the Gulf War in Israel. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1993; 64(5):817–26. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.64.5.817 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.64.5.817]
5. Marganska A, Gallagher M, Miranda R. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 2013; 83(1):131–41. doi: 10.1111/ajop.12001 [DOI:10.1111/ajop.12001]
6. Ognibene TC, Collins NL. Adult attachment styles, perceived social support and coping strategies. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 1998; 15(3):323–45. doi: 10.1177/0265407598153002 [DOI:10.1177/0265407598153002]
7. Ruijten T, Roelofs J, Rood L. The mediating role of rumination in the relation between quality of attachment relations and depressive symptoms in non-clinical adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2010; 20(4):452–9. doi: 10.1007/s10826-010-9412-5 [DOI:10.1007/s10826-010-9412-5]
8. Bowlby J. Attachment and Loss, Vol. I: Attachment. New York: Basic Books; 1969.
9. Main M, Kaplan N, Cassidy J. Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. JSTOR. 1985; 50(1/2):66. doi: 10.2307/3333827 [DOI:10.2307/3333827]
10. Hazan C, Shaver P. Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1987; 52(3):511–24. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.52.3.511 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.52.3.511]
11. Bartholomew K, Horowitz LM. Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1991; 61(2):226–44. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.61.2.226 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.61.2.226]
12. Bowlby J. Attachment and Loss: Vol. II. Separation, anxiety and Anger. London: Penguin Books Limited; 1998.
13. Bretherton I, Munholland KA. The internal working model construct in light of contemporary neuroimaging research. In: Cassidy J, Shaver PR, editors. Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications.New York: Guilford; 2016.
14. Margolese SK, Markiewicz D, Doyle AB. Attachment to parents, best friend, and romantic partner: Predicting different pathways to depression in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2005; 34(6):637–50. doi: 10.1007/s10964-005-8952-2 [DOI:10.1007/s10964-005-8952-2]
15. Saffrey C, Ehrenberg M. When thinking hurts: Attachment, rumination, and postrelationship adjustment. Personal Relationships. 2007; 14(3):351–68. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6811.2007.00160.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2007.00160.x]
16. Fraley RC, Shaver PR. Adult romantic attachment: Theoretical developments, emerging controversies, and unanswered questions. Review of General Psychology. 2000; 4(2):132–54. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.4.2.132 [DOI:10.1037/1089-2680.4.2.132]
17. Nolen Hoeksema S. Ruminative coping with depression. In: Heckhausen J, Dweck CS, editors. Motivation and self regulation across the life span. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1998. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511527869.011]
18. Nolen Hoeksema S, Morrow J. A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1991; 61(1):115–21. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.61.1.115 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.61.1.115]
19. Pyszczynski T, Holt K, Greenberg J. Depression, self focused attention, and expectancies for positive and negative future life events for self and others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1987; 52(5):994–1001. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.52.5.994 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.52.5.994]
20. Lanciano T, Curci A, Kafetsios K, Elia L, Zammuner VL. Attachment and dysfunctional rumination: The mediating role of Emotional Intelligence abilities. Personality and Individual Differences. 2012; 53(6):753–8. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.05.027 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2012.05.027]
21. Pearson KA, Watkins ER, Mullan EG, Moberly NJ. Psychosocial correlates of depressive rumination. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2010; 48(8):784–91. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.05.007 [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2010.05.007]
22. Burnette JL, Taylor KW, Worthington EL, Forsyth DR. Attachment and trait forgivingness: The mediating role of angry rumination. Personality and Individual Differences. 2007; 42(8):1585–96. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.033 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.033]
23. Beyderman I, Young MA. Rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory as mediators of the relationship between attachment and depression. Personality and Individual Differences. 2016; 98:37–41. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.077 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.077]
24. Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory II. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation; 1996.
25. Fata L, Birashk B, Atefvahid MK, Dabson KS. [Meaning assignment structures/schema, emotional states and cognitive processing of emotional information: comparing two conceptual frameworks (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2005; 11(3):312-26.
26. Stefan Dabson K, Mohammadkhani P, Massah Choulabi O. [Psychometrics characteristic of Beck Depression Inventory-II in patients with magor depressive disorder (Persian)]. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2007; 8 :82-8.
27. Treynor W, Gonzalez R, Nolen Hoeksema S. Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2003; 27(3):247-59. doi: 10.1023/a:1023910315561 [DOI:10.1023/A:1023910315561]
28. Yook K, Kim KH, Suh SY, Lee KS. Intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and rumination in major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2010; 24(6):623–8. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.04.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.04.003]
29. Giorgio JM, Sanflippo J, Kleiman E, Reilly D, Bender RE, Wagner CA, et al. An experiential avoidance conceptualization of depressive rumination: Three tests of the model. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2010; 48(10):1021–31. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.07.004 [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2010.07.004]
30. Mohammadkhani, S., Purmand N.S., Hassanabadi, H. [An empirical test of a metacognitive model of rumination and depression in non-clinical population (Persian)]. Modern psychological research. 2013; 8(30):183-204.
31. Baldwin MW. Relational schemas and cognition in close relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 1995; 12(4):547–52. doi: 10.1177/0265407595124008 [DOI:10.1177/0265407595124008]
32. Feeney JA, Noller P. Attachment style as a predictor of adult romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1990; 58(2):281–91. Doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.58.2.281 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.58.2.281]
33. Pakdaman Sh. [Investigating the relation between attachment and sociability in adolescents (Persian)]. Psychoscience. 2004; 3(9):25-47.
34. Zarrati I, Amin Yazdi, SA, Azad Fallah P. [Relation of emitional intelligence and attachment style (Persian)]. Advances in Cognitive Science. 2006; 8(1): 31-37.
35. Ahadi B. [Relationship between loneliness and self esteem with students' attachment styles (Persian)]. Journal of Psychological Studies. 2009; 5(1): 95-112. doi: 10.22051/PSY.1970.1593
36. Taj, F., Taghipour, E., Sadeghi, M. S., & Khoskonesh, A. [The correlation of attachment styles with self-actualization in Psychotherapist in Tehran (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Career & Organizational Counseling. 2013; 5(16):28-45.
37. Overall NC, Fletcher GJO, Friesen MD. Mapping the intimate relationship mind: Comparisons between three models of attachment representations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2003; 29(12):1479–93. doi: 10.1177/0146167203251519 [DOI:10.1177/0146167203251519]
38. Ferguson G, Takane Y. Statistical analysis in psychology and education. New York: McGraw Hill; 1989.
39. MacKinnon DP, Lockwood CM, Williams J. Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 2004; 39(1):99–128. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4 [DOI:10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4]
40. Preacher KJ, Hayes AF. SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers. 2004; 36(4):717–31. doi: 10.3758/bf03206553 [DOI:10.3758/BF03206553]
41. Preacher KJ, Hayes AF. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods. 2008; 40(3):879–91. doi: 10.3758/brm.40.3.879 [DOI:10.3758/BRM.40.3.879]
42. Amani R, Majzoobi MR, Azadi Fard S. Mother infant attachment style as a predictor of depression among female students. Journal of Midwifery and Reproductive Health. 2017; 5(1):834-41.
43. Allen JP, Moore C, Kuperminc G, Bell K. Attachment and adolescent psychosocial functioning. Child Development. 2008; 69(5):1406–19. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06220.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06220.x]
44. Kobak RR, Sudler N, Gamble W. Attachment and depressive symptoms during adolescence: A developmental pathways analysis. Development and Psychopathology. 1991; 3(04):461-74. doi: 10.1017/s095457940000763x [DOI:10.1017/S095457940000763X]
45. Murphy B, Bates GW. Adult attachment style and vulnerability to depression. Personality and Individual Differences. 1997; 22(6):835–44. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(96)00277-2 [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(96)00277-2]
46. Nolen Hoeksema S. Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1991; 100(4):569–82. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.100.4.569 [DOI:10.1037/0021-843X.100.4.569]
47. Just N, Alloy LB. The response styles theory of depression: Tests and an extension of the theory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1997; 106(2):221–9. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.106.2.221 [DOI:10.1037/0021-843X.106.2.221]
48. Kuehner C, Weber I. Responses to depression in unipolar depressed patients: An investigation of Nolen Hoeksema's response styles theory. Psychological Medicine. 1999; 29(6):1323-33. doi: 10.1017/s0033291799001282 [DOI:10.1017/S0033291799001282]
49. Nolen Hoeksema S, Morrow J, Fredrickson BL. Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1993; 102(1):20–8. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.102.1.20 [DOI:10.1037/0021-843X.102.1.20]
50. Whitmer A, Gotlib IH. Brooding and reflection reconsidered: A factor analytic examination of rumination in currently depressed, formerly depressed, and never depressed individuals. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2011; 35(2):99–107. doi: 10.1007/s10608-011-9361-3 [DOI:10.1007/s10608-011-9361-3]
51. Nolen Hoeksema S, Wisco BE, Lyubomirsky S. Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2008; 3(5):400–24. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x]
52. Zuroff DC, Fitzpatrick DK. Depressive personality styles: Implications for adult attachment. Personality and Individual Differences. 1995; 18(2):253–65. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)00136-g [DOI:10.1016/0191-8869(94)00136-G]
53. Diamond G, Siqueland L, Diamond GM. Attachment based family therapy for depressed adolescents: Programmatic treatment development. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2003; 6(2):107-27. PMID: 12836580 [DOI:10.1023/A:1023782510786] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

Send email to the article author


© 2018 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb