Volume 23, Issue 3 (Fall 2017)                   IJPCP 2017, 23(3): 260-277 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

abazari K, malekpour M, ghamarani A, abedi A, faramarzi S. Impact of Individual Differences Intervention (Floortime) Based on Parents’ Expressed Emotion on Children’s Social Skills With High-Functioning Autism Disorder. IJPCP. 2017; 23 (3) :260-277
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2565-en.html
1- Department of Psychology and Education of Children With Special Needs, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran , Email:kabazari@yahoo.com
2- Department of Psychology and Education of Children With Special Needs, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
3- Department of Psychology and Education of Children With Special Needs, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Abstract:   (3239 Views)
Objectives This study was conducted to design Individual Differences intervention based on parents’ expressed emotion and its impact on children’s social skills with high-functioning autism disorder.
Methods The first part of this study is comparative-causal and the second part is a semi-experimental study. In order to design Floortime treatment plan based on parents’ expressed emotion, first in an Embedded Design Mixed Research Method by means of researcher’s questionnaire for qualitative measurement and family questionnaire for quantitative part of emotional state of mothers with autistic children were measured.
Accordingly, the treatment plan with 23 meetings was codified. Finally, 20 children with high-functioning autism were selected from the autism centers by available sampling. Out of them, 10 children were put into the experimental group and they were provided designed intervention plan in addition to the ABA intervention, and the other 10 children formed the control group, who merely received Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) intervention. Tools used were Family Questionnaire, ASSQ test, Stanford-Binet intelligence test, and Gilliam and Vineland social compatibility tests.
Results Results show that there are significant differences in mother’s expressed emotion in case of normal and autistic children. The expressed emotion of mothers of autistic children is high in terms of the total score of expressed emotion, criticism, and Emotional Over-Involvement (EOI). After the intervention, no significant difference was observed in the social compatibility and communication skills between the two groups of children who were under the ABA intervention and who were under Floortime intervention. But after the intervention, the experimental group had a better score in relation variable.
Conclusion Given the high level of excitement expressed by parents of children with autism, various interventions have to reduce their excitement. You can also use social interventions such as floortime intervention to increase the association of children with high performance autism disorder
Full-Text [PDF 3566 kb]   (1570 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (2028 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Psychiatry and Psychology
Received: 2016/09/17 | Accepted: 2017/01/21 | Published: 2017/10/1

1. Karst JS, Van Hecke AV. Parent and family impact of autism spectrum disorders: A review and proposed model for intervention evaluation. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2012; 15(3):247–77. doi: 10.1007/s10567-012-0119-6 [DOI:10.1007/s10567-012-0119-6]
2. Eisenhower AS, Baker BL, Blacher J. Preschool children with intellectual disability: syndrome specificity, behaviour problems, and maternal well-being. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2005; 49(9):657–71. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00699.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00699.x]
3. Aydın A. Acomparison of the alexithymia, self-compassion and humor characteristics of the parents with mentally disabled and autistic children. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2015; 174:720–9. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.607 [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.607]
4. Hooley JM, Parker HA. Measuring expressed emotion: An evaluation of the shortcuts. Journal of Family Psychology. 2006; 20(3):386–96. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.20.3.386 [DOI:10.1037/0893-3200.20.3.386]
5. Benson PR, Daley D, Karlof KL, Robison D. Assessing expressed emotion in mothers of children with Autism. Autism. 2010; 15(1):65–82. doi: 10.1177/1362361309352777 [DOI:10.1177/1362361309352777]
6. Bader SH, Barry TD. A longitudinal examination of the relation between parental expressed emotion and externalizing behaviors in children and adolescents with Autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2014; 44(11):2820–31. doi: 10.1007/s10803-014-2142-6 [DOI:10.1007/s10803-014-2142-6]
7. Hooley JM, Gotlib IH. A diathesis-stress conceptualization of expressed emotion and clinical outcome. Applied and Preventive Psychology. 2000; 9(3):135–51. doi: 10.1016/s0962-1849(05)80001-0 [DOI:10.1016/S0962-1849(05)80001-0]
8. Eisenberg N, Gershoff ET, Fabes RA, Shepard SA, Cumberland AJ, Losoya SH, et al. Mother's emotional expressivity and children's behavior problems and social competence: Mediation through children's regulation. Developmental Psychology. 2001; 37(4):475-90. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.37.4.475 [DOI:10.1037//0012-1649.37.4.475]
9. Greenberg JS, Mailick Seltzer M, Hong J, Orsmond GI. Bidirectional effects of expressed emotion and behavior problems and symptoms in adolescents and adults with Autism. American Journal on Mental Retardation. 2006; 111(4):229–49. doi: 10.1352/0895-8017(2006)111[229:beoeea]2.0.co;2 [DOI:10.1352/0895-8017(2006)111[229:BEOEEA]2.0.CO;2]
10. Wasserman S, Weisman de Mamani A, Mundy P. Parents' criticisms and attributions about their adult children with high functioning Autism or schizophrenia. Autism. 2010; 14(2):127–37. doi: 10.1177/1362361309354757 [DOI:10.1177/1362361309354757]
11. Griffith GM, Hastings RP, Petalas MA, Lloyd TJ. Mothers' expressed emotion towards children with autism spectrum disorder and their siblings. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2014; 59(6):580-87. doi: 10.1111/jir.12178 [DOI:10.1111/jir.12178]
12. Kelly AB, Garnett MS, Attwood T, Peterson C. Autism spectrum symptomatology in children: The impact of family and peer relationships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2008; 36(7):1069–81. doi: 10.1007/s10802-008-9234-8 [DOI:10.1007/s10802-008-9234-8]
13. Wilson R. Assessing Expressed Emotion in parents in association with children's social competence, language ability and their understanding of others. Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan Universityک 2011.
14. Handley RL. Aggressive and self-injurious behavior: Towards a community early intervention strategy [PhD thesis]. Birmingham: University of Birmingham; 2014.
15. Solomon R, Necheles J, Ferch C, Bruckman D. Pilot study of a parent training program for young children with autism. Autism. 2007; 11(3):205–24. doi: 10.1177/1362361307076842 [DOI:10.1177/1362361307076842]
16. Roberts J, Williams K, Carter M, Evans D, Parmenter T, Silove N, et al. A randomised controlled trial of two early intervention programs for young children with autism: Centre-based with parent program and home-based. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 5(4):1553–66. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2011.03.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2011.03.001]
17. Mudford OC, Martin NT, Eikeseth S, Bibby P. Parent-managed behavioral treatment for preschool children with autism: Some characteristics of UK programs. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2001; 22(3):173–82. doi: 10.1016/s0891-4222(01)00066-x [DOI:10.1016/S0891-4222(01)00066-X]
18. Kasari C, Freeman SFN, Paparella T. Early intervention in autism: Joint attention and symbolic play. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation. 2000; 23:207–37. doi: 10.1016/s0074-7750(00)80012-9 [DOI:10.1016/S0074-7750(00)80012-9]
19. Siller M, Sigman M. The behaviors of parents of children with autism predict the subsequent development of their children's communication. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2002; 32(2):77–89. doi: 10.1023/a:1014884404276 [DOI:10.1023/A:1014884404276]
20. Greenspan SI, Wieder S. Engaging Autism: Using the floortime approach to help children relate, com-municate, and think. Boston, Massachusetts: Da Capo Lifelong Books; 2009.
21. Greenspan SI, Wieder S, Simons R. The child with special needs: Encouraging intellectual and emotional growth. New York: Perseus Publishing; 1998.
22. Ingersoll BR. Teaching social communication: A comparison of naturalistic behavioral and development, social pragmatic approaches for children with Autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 2009; 12(1):33–43. doi: 10.1177/1098300709334797 [DOI:10.1177/1098300709334797]
23. Greenspan SI, Wieder S. Developmental patterns and outcomes on Infants and children with disorders of relating and communicating: A chart Review of 200 cases of children with Autistic Spectrum Diagnoses. Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders. 1997; 1(1):87-141.
24. Aldred C, Green J, Adams C. A new social communication intervention for children with autism: pilot randomised controlled treatment study suggesting effectiveness. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2004; 45(8):1420–30. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00338.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00338.x]
25. Hilton JC, Seal BC. Brief report: Comparative aba and dir trials in twin brothers with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2007; 37(6):1197–201. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0258-z [DOI:10.1007/s10803-006-0258-z]
26. Minjarez MB, Williams SE, Mercier EM, Hardan AY. Pivotal response group treatment program for parents of children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2010; 41(1):92–101. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1027-6 [DOI:10.1007/s10803-010-1027-6]
27. Pajareya K, Nopmaneejumruslers K. A pilot randomized controlled trial of DIR/Floortime™ parent training intervention for pre-school children with autistic spectrum disorders. Autism. 2011; 15(5):563–77. doi: 10.1177/1362361310386502 [DOI:10.1177/1362361310386502]
28. Dionne M, Martini R. Floortime play with a child with Autism: A single-subject study. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2011; 78(3):196–203. doi: 10.2182/cjot.2011.78.3.8 [DOI:10.2182/cjot.2011.78.3.8]
29. Orsmond GI, Seltzer MM, Greenberg JS, Krauss MW. Mother–child relationship quality among adolescents and adults with Autism. American Journal on Mental Retardation. 2006; 111(2):121–37. doi: 10.1352/0895-8017(2006)111[121:mrqaaa]2.0.co;2 [DOI:10.1352/0895-8017(2006)111[121:MRQAAA]2.0.CO;2]
30. Creswell JW, Plano Clark VL. Designing and conducting mixed methods research. [A. Kiamenesh, J. Sarayi, Persian Trans]. Tehran: AAyizh; 2010.
31. Creswell JW. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage; 2013.
32. Kasechi, M. [Reliability and validity of the Persian version of autism spectrum disorder screening questionnaire (Persian)] [MA Thesis]. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services; 2012.
33. Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Skinner R, Martin J, Clubley E.. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidencefrom Asperger Syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2001; 31(1):5–17. doi: 10.1023/a:1005653411471 [DOI:10.1023/A:1005653411471]
34. Farid F, Kamkari K, Safarinia M. Afrooz, S. [The comparison of diagnostic validity of new version of Tehran- Stanford Binet intelligence scales (TSB-5) and wechsler intelligence scales for children- fourth edition (WISC-4) in children with learning disability (Persian)]. Journal of Learning Disability. 2013; 4(2):70-83.
35. Shiri Aminloo M, Kamkary K, Shokrzadeh S. [The Concurrent validity of the new version of the Tehran-Stanford-Binet ‎Intelligence Scale with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (Persian)]. Exceptional Education. 2013; 7(120):50-61.) :??
36. Wiedemann G, Rayki O, Feinstein E, Hahlweg K. The Family Questionnaire: Development and validation of a new self-report scale for assessing expressed emotion. Psychiatry Research. 2002; 109(3):265–79. doi: 10.1016/s0165-1781(02)00023-9 [DOI:10.1016/S0165-1781(02)00023-9]
37. Khodabakhshikoolayi A. [Compare the effectiveness of family "model of family management" and "psycho-educational McFarlane" to reduce relapse in schizophrenia patients' mothers, mothers expressed emotion and psychological pressure on them (Persian)] [PhD thesis]. Tehran: AllamehTabatabayi University; 2007
38. Gilliam JE. Gilliam autism rating scale GARS. London: Pearson; 1995.
39. Ahmadi J, Safari T, hematian M, Khalili Z. [Psychometric Properties of the diagnostic test of autism (GARSE) (Persian)]. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Sciences. 2011; 1(1):87-104.
40. Behpajouh A, Soleimani M, Afrooz GH, Lavasani GH. [The impact of social skills training on social adjustment and academic performance of slow learner (Persian)]. Journal of Educational Innovations. 2010; 9(33):163-86.
41. Sparrow SS, Cicchetti DV, Balla DA. Vineland-II: Vineland adaptive behavior scales. London: Pearson; 2005.
42. abazari K, melekpour M, ghamarani A, abedi A, faramarzi S. [Understanding the Factors Influence Expressed Emotion in Mothers of Children Autistic with Autism (Mixed-Method Research) (Persian)]. Journal of Qualitative Research in Health Sciences. 2017; 6(1):22-34.
43. Davis TE, Moree BN, Dempsey T, Hess JA, Jenkins WS, Fodstad JC, et al. The effect of communication deficits on anxiety symptoms in infants and toddlers with Autism spectrum disorders. Behavior Therapy. 2012; 43(1):142–52. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2011.05.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.beth.2011.05.003]
44. Luby M. The impacts on the parent and child: A comparative analysis of ABA and DIR interventions for young children with Autism spectrum disorders [PhD thesis]. Berkeley, California: Wright Institute; 2014.
45. Habibi D, Mirkoohi M. [Floortime effectiveness of play therapy based on high-performance communication skills of children with Autism (Persian)]. Paper presented at: The Social Psychology Conference and Cultural Damage. 26 September 2015; Qom, Iran.
46. Makrygianni MK, Reed P. A meta-analytic review of the effectiveness of behavioural early intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. 2010; 4(4):577–93. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2010.01.014 [DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2010.01.014]
47. Hayward DW, Gale CM, Eikeseth S. Intensive behavioural intervention for young children with autism: A research-based service model. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2009; 3(3):571–80. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2008.12.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2008.12.002]
48. Holtzer J. Efficacy of DIR: Floortime in children with Spectrum Disorder [PhD thesis]. New York: Hofstra University; 2014.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2020 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb