Volume 23, Issue 2 (Summer 2017)                   IJPCP 2017, 23(2): 136-147 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Pirnia B, Rasoulzadeh Tabatabaei S K, Pirkhaefi A, Soleimani A. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Cognitive-Behavioral and Mother-Child Interactive Therapies on Anxiety of Children With Under-Methadone Treatment Mother. IJPCP. 2017; 23 (2) :136-147
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2466-en.html
1- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Science and Culture , E-mail: b.pirnia@usc.ac.ir
2- 1.Department of Psychology, School of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University2.Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Medical science, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University
4- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Science and Culture
Abstract:   (2845 Views)
Objectives Anxiety is one of the most common disorders in childhood. Some of the treatment approaches in clinical psychology determined the treatment of the anxiety symptoms in the interactional field, and others defined it in cognitive framework. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of cognitive behavioral treatment based on anxiety prevention program with parent-child interaction therapy on the anxiety index of pre-school children with parents under methadone maintenance therapy.
Methods This study is based on the combined design of pre-test, post-test and follow-up for six months.  It included mothers under methadone maintenance therapy who were referred to two methadone treatment clinics in Tehran. Seventy-five  mothers and children were randomly selected and grouped into three groups of cognitive-behavioral therapy, parent-child interaction therapy, and control group (n=25 each group). The treatment protocols were provided in two groups for eight sessions in two weeks, and control group was set in waiting list. The anxiety level of the children was evaluated in three stages of pre-test, post-test and follow-up by Spence Anxiety Scale (responding rate=91%), and data were analyzed using the chi-square, Independent Sample t-test and ANOVA with repeated measure.
Results The results of the study showed that both types of treatment had a significant effect on the anxiety index compared to the control group (P<0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the efficiency of both treatments (P>0.65).
Conclusion The findings of the study can be helpful in explaining the causes of the anxiety index in children and planning the preventive interventions.
Full-Text [PDF 2384 kb]   (1324 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (1094 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Psychiatry and Psychology
Received: 2016/02/26 | Accepted: 2016/12/3 | Published: 2017/07/1

1. Ramsawh HJ, Weisberg RB, Dyck I, Stout R, Keller MB. Age of onset, clinical characteristics, and 15-year course of anxiety disorders in a prospective, longitudinal, observational study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2011; 132(1-2):260–4. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.01.006 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2011.01.006]
2. Luby JL, Si X, Belden AC, Tandon M, Spitznagel E. Preschool depression. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2009; 66(8):897. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.97 [DOI:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.97]
3. Beesdo K, Knappe S, Pine DS. Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Developmental issues and implications for DSM-V. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2009; 32(3):483–524. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2009.06.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.psc.2009.06.002]
4. Rapee RM, Schniering CA, Hudson JL. Anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence: Origins and treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 2009; 5(1):311–41. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153628 [DOI:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153628]
5. Wichstrøm L, Berg-Nielsen TS, Angold A, Egger HL, Solheim E, Sveen TH. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2011; 53(6):695–705. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02514.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02514.x]
6. Kessler RC, Petukhova M, Sampson NA, Zaslavsky AM, Wittchen H-U. Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research. 2012; 21(3):169–84. doi: 10.1002/mpr.1359 [DOI:10.1002/mpr.1359]
7. Dougherty LR, Tolep MR, Bufferd SJ, Olino TM, Dyson M, Traditi J, et al. Preschool anxiety disorders: Comprehensive assessment of clinical, demographic, temperamental, familial, and life stress correlates. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2013; 42(5):577–89. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2012.759225 [DOI:10.1080/15374416.2012.759225]
8. Birmaher B, Ehmann M, Axelson DA, Goldstein BI, Monk K, Kalas C, et al. Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children (K-SADS-PL) for the assessment of preschool children – A preliminary psychometric study. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2009; 43(7):680–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.10.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.10.003]
9. Lavigne JV, LeBailly SA, Hopkins J, Gouze KR, Binns HJ. The prevalence of ADHD, ODD, depression, and anxiety in a community sample of 4-year-olds. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2009; 38(3):315–28. doi: 10.1080/15374410902851382 [DOI:10.1080/15374410902851382]
10. Lavigne JV, Gibbons RD, Christoffel KK, Arend R, Rosenbaum D, Binns H, et al. Prevalence rates and correlates of psychiatric disorders among preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1996; 35(2):204–14. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199602000-00014 [DOI:10.1097/00004583-199602000-00014]
11. Hopkins J, Lavigne JV, Gouze KR, LeBailly SA, Bryant FB. Multi-domain models of risk factors for depression and anxiety symptoms in preschoolers: Evidence for common and specific factors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2013; 41(5):705–22. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9723-2 [DOI:10.1007/s10802-013-9723-2]
12. Katz SJ, Conway CC, Hammen CL, Brennan PA, Najman JM. Childhood social withdrawal, interpersonal impairment, and young adult depression: A mediational model. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2011; 39(8):1227–38. doi: 10.1007/s10802-011-9537-z [DOI:10.1007/s10802-011-9537-z]
13. Barrett PM, Dadds MR, Rapee RM. Family treatment of childhood anxiety: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1996; 64(2):333–42. doi: 10.1037/0022-006x.64.2.333 [DOI:10.1037/0022-006X.64.2.333]
14. Barrett PM. Evaluation of cognitive-behavioral group treatments for childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 1998; 27(4):459–68. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2704_10 [DOI:10.1207/s15374424jccp2704_10]
15. Barrett P, Turner C. Prevention of anxiety symptoms in primary school children: Preliminary results from a universal school-based trial. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2001; 40(4):399–410. doi: 10.1348/014466501163887 [DOI:10.1348/014466501163887]
16. Neil AL, Christensen H. Efficacy and effectiveness of school-based prevention and early intervention programs for anxiety. Clinical Psychology Review. 2009; 29(3):208–15. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.01.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.01.002]
17. Teubert D, Pinquart M. A meta-analytic review on the prevention of symptoms of anxiety in children and adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2011; 25(8):1046–59. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.07.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.07.001]
18. Urao Y, Yoshinaga N, Asano K, Ishikawa R, Tano A, Sato Y, et al. Effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural therapy-based anxiety prevention programme for children: a preliminary quasi-experimental study in Japan. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. 2016; 10:4. doi: 10.1186/s13034-016-0091-x [DOI:10.1186/s13034-016-0091-x]
19. Goodman SH, Gotlib IH. Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review. 1999; 106(3):458–90. doi: 10.1037/0033-295x.106.3.458 [DOI:10.1037/0033-295X.106.3.458]
20. Wood JJ, McLeod BD, Sigman M, Hwang W-C, Chu BC. Parenting and childhood anxiety: Theory, empirical findings, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2003; 44(1):134–51. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00106 [DOI:10.1111/1469-7610.00106]
21. McLeod BD, Wood JJ, Weisz JR. Examining the association between parenting and childhood anxiety: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review. 2007; 27(2):155–72. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2006.09.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2006.09.002]
22. Van der Bruggen CO, Stams GJJM, Bögels SM. Research Review: The relation between child and parent anxiety and parental control: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2008; 49(12):1257–69. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01898.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01898.x]
23. Stallard P. A clinician's guide to think good-feel good: Using CBT with children and young people. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2005.
24. Abrahamse ME, Junger M, Chavannes EL, Coelman FJG, Boer F, Lindauer RJL. Parent–child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. 2012; 6(1):24. doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-6-24 [DOI:10.1186/1753-2000-6-24]
25. Hood KK, Eyberg SM. Outcomes of parent-child interaction therapy: Mothers' reports of maintenance three to six years after treatment. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2003; 32(3):419-29. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3203_10 [DOI:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3203_10]
26. Nixon RDV, Sweeney L, Erickson DB, Touyz SW. Parent-child interaction therapy: A comparison of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional defiant preschoolers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2003; 71(2):251–60. doi: 10.1037/0022-006x.71.2.251 [DOI:10.1037/0022-006X.71.2.251]
27. Nixon RDV, Sweeney L, Erickson DB, Touyz SW. Parent–child interaction therapy: One- and two-year follow-up of standard and abbreviated treatments for oppositional preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2004; 32(3):263–71. doi: 10.1023/b:jacp.0000026140.60558.05 [DOI:10.1023/B:JACP.0000026140.60558.05]
28. Schuhmann EM, Foote RC, Eyberg SM, Boggs SR, Algina J. Efficacy of parent-child interaction therapy: Interim report of a randomized trial with short-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 1998; 27(1):34–45. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2701_4 [DOI:10.1207/s15374424jccp2701_4]
29. Pincus DB, Eyberg SM, Choate ML. Adapting parent-child interaction therapy for young children with separation anxiety disorder. Education and Treatment of Children. 2005; 28(2):163-81.
30. Choate ML, Pincus DB, Eyberg SM, Barlow DH. Parent-child interaction therapy for treatment of separation anxiety disorder in young children: A pilot study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. 2005; 12(1):126–35. doi: 10.1016/s1077-7229(05)80047-1 [DOI:10.1016/S1077-7229(05)80047-1]
31. Luby J, Lenze S, Tillman R. A novel early intervention for preschool depression: Findings from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2011; 53(3):313–22. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02483.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02483.x]
32. Lenze SN, Pautsch J, Luby J. Parent-child interaction therapy emotion development: A novel treatment for depression in preschool children. Depression and Anxiety. 2010; 28(2):153–9. doi: 10.1002/da.20770 [DOI:10.1002/da.20770]
33. Barnard M, McKeganey N. The impact of parental problem drug use on children: What is the problem and what can be done to help. Addiction. 2004; 99(5):552–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2003.00664.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2003.00664.x]
34. Bittner A, Egger HL, Erkanli A, Jane Costello E, Foley DL, Angold A. What do childhood anxiety disorders predict. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2007; 48(12):1174–83. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01812.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01812.x]
35. Wagner KD. Efficacy of sertraline in the treatment of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder two randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2003; 290(8):1033. doi: 10.1001/jama.290.8.1033 [DOI:10.1001/jama.290.8.1033]
36. First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JB. Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR axis I disorders, research version, patient edition. New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute; 2002. [PMCID]
37. Sharifi V, Assadi SM, Mohammadi MR, Amini H, Kaviani H, Semnani Y, et al. [A Persian translation of the structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Persian)]. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2009; 50(1):86–91. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.04.004 [DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.04.004]
38. Nauta MH, Scholing A, Rapee RM, Abbott M, Spence SH, Waters A. A parent-report measure of children's anxiety: Psychometric properties and comparison with child-report in a clinic and normal sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2004; 42(7):813–39. doi: 10.1016/s0005-7967(03)00200-6 [DOI:10.1016/S0005-7967(03)00200-6]
39. Ishikawa S, Sato H, Sasagawa S. Anxiety disorder symptoms in Japanese children and adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2009; 23(1):104–11. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.04.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.04.003]
40. Shadish WR, Cook TD, Campbell DT. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston: Cengage learning; 2002.
41. Smith KE, Hudson JL. Metacognitive beliefs and processes in clinical anxiety in children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2013; 42(5):590–602. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2012.755925 [DOI:10.1080/15374416.2012.755925]
42. Puliafico AC, Comer JS, Pincus DB. Adapting parent-child interaction therapy to treat anxiety disorders in young children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2012; 21(3):607–19. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2012.05.005 [DOI:10.1016/j.chc.2012.05.005]
43. Spence SH, Shortt AL. Research review: Can we justify the widespread dissemination of universal, school-based interventions for the prevention of depression among children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2007; 48(6):526–42. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01738.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01738.x]
44. Stallard P, Sayal K, Phillips R, Taylor JA, Spears M, Anderson R, et al. Classroom based cognitive behavioural therapy in reducing symptoms of depression in high risk adolescents: Pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2012; 345:6058. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e6058 [DOI:10.1136/bmj.e6058]
45. Kortlander E, Kendall PC, Panichelli-Mindel SM. Maternal expectations and attributions about coping in anxious children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 1997; 11(3):297–315. doi: 10.1016/s0887-6185(97)00012-1 [DOI:10.1016/S0887-6185(97)00012-1]
46. Shamir-Essakow G, Ungerer JA, Rapee RM. Attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2005; 33(2):131–43. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-1822-2 [DOI:10.1007/s10802-005-1822-2]
47. Bögels SM, Brechman-Toussaint ML. Family issues in child anxiety: Attachment, family functioning, parental rearing and beliefs. Clinical Psychology Review. 2006; 26(7):834–56. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.08.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2005.08.001]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb