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Fallahi M, Kafie Masuleh M, Khousro Javid M, Karimi Lie Chahei R, Eskandari B. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Children’s Coping Behavior Questionnaire (CCBQ). IJPCP. 2018; 23 (4) :494-509
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2461-en.html
1- PhD in Psychology , Mental Health Unit, Deputy of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran , E-mail: mahnaz.fallahi@gmail.com
2- PhD in Psychology, Professor , Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3- PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
4- MSc. in Educational Psychology Center for Learning Disorders, Guilan Organization of Education, Rasht, Iran
5- MSc. in Personality Psychology Deputy of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran
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Extended Abstract
1. Introduction

Coping skills apply to actions and cognitions that control stressful situations and change into more specific behaviors as children or adolescents grow up [1, 2]. Through their investigations, Edger and Skinner (2003) showed that faced with a stressful event children are apt to draw on behavioral coping strategies, while adolescents are more likely to take a cognitive approach [3]. According to Hernandez (2008), children and adolescents acquire coping skills more compatibility as they grow older [2]. Children’s and adolescents’ ability to control anxiety has a great influence on their conduct [4]. If they are made aware of the situations which cause anger or anxiety, they can prevent such conditions [6]. Accordingly, a parent who makes an effort to improve his/her child’s ability to apprehend and control excitements is, in fact, helping to maintain his/her own mental health [7]. Therefore, to characterize excitements, a technique is firstly required to identify coping behaviors in children and adolescents; secondly, the proper method to control excitements must be taught to children and adolescents. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability, validity, and structural equation modeling of Children’s Coping Behaviors Questionnaire (CCBQ). 
2. Method
To prepare the Persian version of the questionnaire, the questions were translated by two bilingual translators. After obtaining psychologists’ confirmation, the provided questionnaire was conducted on a pilot basis on 16 teenagers. In case any sentence was unclear, it would be revised and rewritten. The method of this correlation study is factor analysis, and data has been collected using the Persian version of CCBQ in Guilan province. The sample consisted of 300 adolescents aged 10-16 years who lived in rural or urban areas of Guilan during the test. Their average age and the standard deviations were 13.23 and 1.75, respectively. 
Factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and criterion validity were utilized simultaneously with state-trait anxiety children inventory to determine the validity of this questionnaire. Reliability study was also performed on 60 students by using internal consistency and a retest method at 2-week intervals. Additionally, the measurement tool was CCBQ, developed by Fernandez in 2008 for children aged 10-16 years. The questionnaire consists of 57 questions and 3 components. These components include “deviation from the problem” and “coping with the problem” to improve the situation or find a solution and express the emotions, and “destructive coping”, most of whose responses are maladaptive [2].
3. Results 
To confirm the extracted factors of the Persian version of CCBQ, the authors employed Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). This method uses some indices, including the ratio of Chi square to its degrees of freedom, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI), Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), and finally Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) [8, 9] (Table 1).
All the indices are of good value and confirm the three-factor structure of the Persian version of CCBQ. The ratio of chi square to its degrees of freedom investigates the hypothesis of coordination between this intended model and the covariance pattern of observed variables; this ratio was found to be 5.504. Moreover, GFI and AGFI indicate the relative values of variances and covariance that are explained by the model. The closer is the value to 1, the higher is GFI with respect to the observed data [10]. In this examined model, these values were respectively 0.92 and 0.807. AGFI for good patterns was measured in the range of 0.92-0.95. In this instance too, the closer is the value to 1, the better is the model’s GFI. Besides, in the intended model this index estimated to be 0.93. Generally, root mean square error of approximation is 0.05 and lower for strong models, 0.05-0.08 for average models, and 0.1 and higher for weak models [24]. In this model, the index was 0.063.
Concurrent validity of the Persian version of CCBQ was calculated through the simultaneous implementation of the above questionnaire and the state-trait anxiety inventory for children. The results showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between the total score of the three CCBQ factors and the latter questionnaire. The Persian version of CCBQ was conducted on 60 participants at 2-week intervals. The value of this coefficient for the whole scale was 0.77. Specifically, the values were 0.84, 0.76, and 0.53 for the sub-scales of deviation from the problem, coping with the problem and destructive coping, respectively. Using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, the authors obtained an internal consistency ranging between 0.91 and 0.74. This value indicates that the reliability of CCBQ is high.
 

4. Discussion
Analyzing the Persian version of CCBQ demonstrated a three-factor structure with a high factor load in this scale. The first factor of CCBQ assesses behaviors based on deviation from the problem, which includes items such as evaluating family routines and support, positive thinking, spirituality, and distraction. In such a situation, family support for children and adolescents means changing the focus from the problem to other activities to stimulate positive thinking [11, 12]. 
The second factor of CCBQ is ameliorative coping with the problem to improve the situation. This improvement for children and adolescents can be achieved through finding some solutions for making balance in their lives. Hence, family, friends, and peers can function as some means of achieving this goal, and they can have an indirect effect on emotions [13, 14]. The third factor of CCBQ is destructive coping. Negative coping has the greatest impact on adjustment, especially after the stressors in life (2.25). Failure in controlling emotions can be an important factor in causing anxiety disorders [15, 16]. Moreover, deviation from the problem is compatible with social support, habits, as well as positive and spiritual thinking [2, 17]. Teaching children and adolescents to control their emotions helps them to become aware of how their behavior affects others. Thus, they gain sufficient awareness of inappropriate coping with the so-called “negative emotions”. This behavior is manifested by deviation from the problem and dealing with it. This suggestion is consistent with the results of previous studies [13, 16].
Acknowledgments
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. We thank all the children and adolescents who participated in this study.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

 
References
[1]Skinner EA, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ. The development of coping. Annual Review of Psychology. 2007; 58(1):119–44. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085705

[2]Hernandez BC. The children’s coping behavior questionnaire: Development and validation [MA thesis]. Chicago: Loyola University Chicago; 2008.

[3]Edgar KA. Illness representations and coping as predictors of emotional well-being in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 2003; 28(7):485–93. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsg039

[4]Donaldson D, Prinstein MJ, Danovsky M,  SpiritoA. Patterns of children’s coping with life: Implications for clinicians. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 2000; 70(3):351-59. doi: 10.1037/h0087689

[5]Yousefi F. [The relationship of cognitive emotion regulation strategies with depression and anxiety in students of special middle schools for talented students in Shiraz (Persian)]. Journal of Exceptional Children. 2004; 6(4):871-92.

[6]Dadsetan P. [Developmental psychology disease: From childhood to adulthood (Persian)]. Tehran: Samt; 1997.

[7]Narimani M, Abbasi M, Abolghasemi A, Ahadi B. [A study comparing the effectiveness of acceptance/ commitment by emotional regulation training on adjustment in students with dyscalculia (Persian)]. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 2012; 2(4):154-76.

[8]Abdi S, Babapoor J, Fathi H. [Relationship between cognitive emotion regulation styles and general health among university students (Persian)]. Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research. 2011; 8(4):258-64

[9]Rezvan S, Bahrami F, Abedi M. [The effect of emotional regulation on happiness and mental rumination of students (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry & Clinical Psychology. 2006; 12(3):251-57. 

[10]Spirito A, Francis G, Overholser J, Frank N. Coping, depression, and adolescent suicide attempts. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 1996; 25(2):147–55. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2502_3

[11]Stallard P, Velleman R, Langsford J, Baldwin S. Coping and psychological distress in children involved in road traffic accidents. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2001; 40(2):197–208. doi: 10.1348/014466501163643 

[12]Brown, JM, O’Keeffe J, Sanders SH, Baker B. Developmental changes in children’s cognition to stressful and painful situations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1986; 11(3):343-57. doi: 0.1093/jpepsy/11.3.343

[13]Vernberg EM, La Greca AM, Silverman WK, Prinstein MJ. Prediction of posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after Hurricane Andrew. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1996; 105(2):237–48. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.105.2.237

[14]Swenson CC, Saylor CF, Powell MP, Stokes SJ, Foster KY, Belter RW. Impact of a natural disaster on preschool children: Adjustment 14 months after a hurricane. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1996; 66(1):122–30. doi: 10.1037/h0080162

[15]Jones RT, Ollendick TH. Risk factors for psychological adjustment following residential fire: The role of avoidant coping. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. 2005; 6(2):85–99. doi: 10.1300/j229v06n02_08

[16]Costello EJ, Erkanli A, Fairbank JA, Angold A. The prevalence of potentially traumatic events in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2002; 15(2):99–112. doi: 10.1023/a:1014851823163

[17]Gratz KL, Gunderson JG. Preliminary data on an acceptance-based emotion regulation group intervention for deliberate self-harm among women with borderline personality disorder. Behavior Therapy. 2006; 37(1):25–35. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2005.03.002

[18]Gross JJ, John OP. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2003; 85(2):348–62. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348

[19]Tugade MM, Frederickson BL. Positive emotions and emotional intelligence. In: Feldman-Barrett L, Salovey P, editor. The Wisdom in Feeling: Psychological Processes in Emotional Intelligence. New York: The Guilford Press; 2002.

[20]Bateni P, Abolghasemi A, Aliakbari Dehkordi M, Hormozi M. [The efficacy of emotion-regulation skills training on the anxiety components among female school students (Persian)]. Journal of School Psychology. 2013; 2(3):23-37.

[21]Mousavi R, Mousavi S, Akbari Zardkhaneh S. [Assessment and Diagnosis instruments of Anxiety disorders among child and adolescents (Persian)]. Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research. 2008; (6)2:147-54.

[22]Kendall PC, Puliafico AC, Barmish AJ, Choudhury MS, Henin A, Treadwell KS. Assessing anxiety with the child behavior checklist and the teacher report form. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2007; 21(8):1004–15. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.10.012

[23]Abdoli N. [The Validity and application of the accessibility checklist, the high school students Kermanshah (Persian)] [MSc.  thesis]. Tehran: Islamic Azad University, Central Branch; 2009. 

[24]Marnat GG. Guide psychological assessment. [H. Pasha Sharifi & MR. Nikkhooi, Persian Trans]. Tehran: Roshd; 2003.

[25]Hair JFJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL, Black WC. Multivariate data analysis. London: Pearson; 2010.

[26]Byrne BM. Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Abingdon: Routledge; 2009

[27]Garnefski N, Teerds J, Kraaij V, Legerstee J, van den Kommer T. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: differences between males and females. Personality and Individual Differences. 2004; 36(2):267–76. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(03)00083-7

[28]Karukivi M, Hautala L, Kaleva O, Haapasalo-Pesu K-M, Liuksila P-R, Joukamaa M, et al. Alexithymia is associated with anxiety among adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2010; 125(1-3):383–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.02.126

[29]Yiend J. The effects of emotion on attention: A review of attentional processing of emotional information. Cognition & Emotion. 2010; 24(1):3–47. doi: 10.1080/02699930903205698

[30]Berggren N, Derakshan N. Attentional control deficits in trait anxiety: Why you see them and why you don’t. Biological Psychology. 2013; 92(3):440–6. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2012.03.007
 
[31]Rector NA, Szacun-Shimizu K, Leybman M. Anxiety sensitivity within the anxiety disorders: Disorder-specific sensitivities and depression comorbidity. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2007; 45(8):1967–75. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2006.09.017

[32]Malouf GM, Thorsteinsson EB, Schuttle NS. The efficacy of problem solving therapy in reducing mental and physical health problems: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review. 2007; 27(1):46–57. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.12.005

[33]Deacon B, Abramowitz J. Anxiety sensitivity and its dimensions across the anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2006; 20(7):837–57. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.01.003

[34]Gross JJ, Thompson RA. Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In: Gross JJ, editor. Handbook of Emotion Regulation. New York: Guilford Press; 2015.

[35]Rodebaugh TL, Heimberg RG. Emotion regulation and the anxiety disorders: Adopting a self-regulation perspective. In: Vingerhoets AJ, Nyklíček I, Denollet J, editors. Emotion Regulation. Berlin: Springer; 2008.

[36]Tull MT, Stipelman BA, Salters-Pedneault K, Gratz KL. An examination of recent non-clinical panic attacks, panic disorder, anxiety sensitivity, and emotion regulation difficulties in the prediction of generalized anxiety disorder in an analogue sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2009; 23(2):275–82. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.08.002

[37]Tortella-Feliu M, Balle M, Sesé A. Relationships between negative affectivity, emotion regulation, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents as examined through structural equation modeling. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2010; 24(7):686–93. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.04.012

[38]Marroquín B. Interpersonal emotion regulation as a mechanism of social support in depression. Clinical Psychology Review. 2011; 31(8):1276–90. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.09.005

[39]Garnefski N, Teerds J, Kraaij V, Legerstee J, van den Kommer T. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: Differences between males and females. Personality and Individual Differences. 2004; 36(2):267–76. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(03)00083-7

[40]Mathews BL, Kerns KA, Ciesla JA. Specificity of emotion regulation difficulties related to anxiety in early adolescence. Journal of Adolescence. 2014; 37(7):1089–97. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.08.002 

[41]Min JA, Yu JJ, Lee CU, Chae JH. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies contributing to resilience in patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2013; 54(8):1190–7. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.05.008

[42]Salsman JM, Brown TL, Brechting EH, Carlson CR. The link between religion and spirituality and psychological adjustment: the mediating role of optimism and social support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2005; 31(4):522–35. doi: 10.1177/0146167204271563

[43]La Greca AM, Silverman WK, Vernberg EM, Prinstein MJ. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress in children after Hurricane Andrew: A prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1996; 64(4):712–23. doi: 10.1037/0022-006x.64.4.712

[44]Spirito A, Stark LJ, Williams C. Development of a brief coping checklist for use with pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1988; 13(4):555–74. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/13.4.555

[45]Feldman GC, Barrett L, Gross J. Knowing what you are feeling and knowing what to do about it: Mapping the relation between emotion differentiation and emotion regulation. Cognition and Emotion. 2001; 15(6):713-24. doi: 10.1080/02699930143000239
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: General
Received: 2016/02/24 | Accepted: 2017/02/27 | Published: 2018/01/30

References
1. Skinner EA, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ. The development of coping. Annual Review of Psychology. 2007; 58(1):119–44. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085705 [DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085705]
2. Hernandez BC. The children's coping behavior questionnaire: Development and validation [MA thesis]. Chicago: Loyola University Chicago; 2008.
3. Edgar KA. Illness representations and coping as predictors of emotional well-being in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 2003; 28(7):485–93. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsg039 [DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/jsg039]
4. Donaldson D, Prinstein MJ, Danovsky M, SpiritoA. Patterns of children's coping with life: Implications for clinicians. American Journal of Orthopsychia-try. 2000; 70(3):351-59. doi: 10.1037/h0087689 [DOI:10.1037/h0087689]
5. Yousefi F. [The relationship of cognitive emotion regulation strategies with depression and anxiety in students of special middle schools for talented stu-dents in Shiraz (Persian)]. Journal of Exceptional Children. 2004; 6(4):871-92.
6. Dadsetan P. [Developmental psychology disease: From childhood to adulthood (Persian)]. Tehran: SAMT; 1997.
7. Narimani M, Abbasi M, Abolghasemi A, Ahadi B. [A study comparing the effectiveness of acceptance/ commitment by emotional regulation training on adjustment in students with dyscalculia (Persian)]. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 2012; 2(4):154-76.
8. Abdi S, Babapoor J, Fathi H. [Relationship between cognitive emotion regulation styles and general health among university students (Persian)]. Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research. 2011; 8(4):258-64
9. Rezvan S, Bahrami F, Abedi M. [The effect of emotional regulation on happiness and mental rumination of students (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Psychia-try & Clinical Psychology. 2006; 12(3):251-57.
10. Spirito A, Francis G, Overholser J, Frank N. Coping, depression, and adolescent suicide attempts. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 1996; 25(2):147–55. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2502_3 [DOI:10.1207/s15374424jccp2502_3]
11. Stallard P, Velleman R, Langsford J, Baldwin S. Coping and psychological distress in children involved in road traffic accidents. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2001; 40(2):197–208. doi: 10.1348/014466501163643 [DOI:10.1348/014466501163643]
12. Brown, JM, O'Keeffe J, Sanders SH, Baker B. Developmental changes in children's cognition to stressful and painful situations. Journal of Pediatric Psy-chology. 1986; 11(3):343-57. doi: 0.1093/jpepsy/11.3.343
13. Vernberg EM, La Greca AM, Silverman WK, Prinstein MJ. Prediction of posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after Hurricane Andrew. Journal of Ab-normal Psychology. 1996; 105(2):237–48. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.105.2.237 [DOI:10.1037/0021-843X.105.2.237]
14. Swenson CC, Saylor CF, Powell MP, Stokes SJ, Foster KY, Belter RW. Impact of a natural disaster on preschool children: Adjustment 14 months after a hurricane. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1996; 66(1):122–30. doi: 10.1037/h0080162 [DOI:10.1037/h0080162]
15. Jones RT, Ollendick TH. Risk factors for psychological adjustment following residential fire: The role of avoidant coping. Journal of Trauma & Dissocia-tion. 2005; 6(2):85–99. doi: 10.1300/j229v06n02_08 [DOI:10.1300/J229v06n02_08]
16. Costello EJ, Erkanli A, Fairbank JA, Angold A. The prevalence of potentially traumatic events in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2002; 15(2):99–112. doi: 10.1023/a:1014851823163 [DOI:10.1023/A:1014851823163]
17. Gratz KL, Gunderson JG. Preliminary data on an acceptance-based emotion regulation group intervention for deliberate self-harm among women with bor-derline personality disorder. Behavior Therapy. 2006; 37(1):25–35. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2005.03.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.beth.2005.03.002]
18. Gross JJ, John OP. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2003; 85(2):348–62. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348]
19. Tugade MM, Frederickson BL. Positive emotions and emotional intelligence. In: Feldman-Barrett L, Salovey P, editor. The Wisdom in Feeling: Psychologi-cal Processes in Emotional Intelligence. New York: The Guilford Press; 2002.
20. Bateni P, Abolghasemi A, Aliakbari Dehkordi M, Hormozi M. [The efficacy of emotion-regulation skills training on the anxiety components among female school students (Persian)]. Journal of School Psychology. 2013; 2(3):23-37.
21. Mousavi R, Mousavi S, Akbari Zardkhaneh S. [Assessment and Diagnosis instruments of Anxiety disorders among child and adolescents (Persian)]. An-nals of Military and Health Sciences Research. 2008; (6)2:147-54.
22. Kendall PC, Puliafico AC, Barmish AJ, Choudhury MS, Henin A, Treadwell KS. Assessing anxiety with the child behavior checklist and the teacher report form. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2007; 21(8):1004–15. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.10.012 [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.10.012]
23. Abdoli N. [The Validity and application of the accessibility checklist, the high school students Kermanshah (Persian)] [MSc. thesis]. Tehran: Islamic Azad University, Central Branch; 2009.
24. Marnat GG. Guide psychological assessment. [H. Pasha Sharifi & MR. Nikkhooi, Persian Trans]. Tehran: Roshd; 2003.
25. Hair JFJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL, Black WC. Multivariate data analysis. London: Pearson; 2010.
26. Byrne BM. Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Abingdon: Routledge; 2009
27. Garnefski N, Teerds J, Kraaij V, Legerstee J, van den Kommer T. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: differences between males and females. Personality and Individual Differences. 2004; 36(2):267–76. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(03)00083-7 [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00083-7]
28. Karukivi M, Hautala L, Kaleva O, Haapasalo-Pesu K-M, Liuksila P-R, Joukamaa M, et al. Alexithymia is associated with anxiety among adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2010; 125(1-3):383–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.02.126 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2010.02.126]
29. Yiend J. The effects of emotion on attention: A review of attentional processing of emotional information. Cognition & Emotion. 2010; 24(1):3–47. doi: 10.1080/02699930903205698 [DOI:10.1080/02699930903205698]
30. Berggren N, Derakshan N. Attentional control deficits in trait anxiety: Why you see them and why you don't. Biological Psychology. 2013; 92(3):440–6. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2012.03.007 [DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2012.03.007]
31. Rector NA, Szacun-Shimizu K, Leybman M. Anxiety sensitivity within the anxiety disorders: Disorder-specific sensitivities and depression comorbidity. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2007; 45(8):1967–75. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2006.09.017 [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2006.09.017]
32. Malouf GM, Thorsteinsson EB, Schuttle NS. The efficacy of problem solving therapy in reducing mental and physical health problems: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review. 2007; 27(1):46–57. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.12.005 [DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2005.12.005]
33. Deacon B, Abramowitz J. Anxiety sensitivity and its dimensions across the anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2006; 20(7):837–57. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.01.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.01.003]
34. Gross JJ, Thompson RA. Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In: Gross JJ, editor. Handbook of Emotion Regulation. New York: Guilford Press; 2015.
35. Rodebaugh TL, Heimberg RG. Emotion regulation and the anxiety disorders: Adopting a self-regulation perspective. In: Vingerhoets AJ, Nyklíček I, Denol-let J, editors. Emotion Regulation. Berlin: Springer; 2008. [DOI:10.1007/978-0-387-29986-0_9]
36. Tull MT, Stipelman BA, Salters-Pedneault K, Gratz KL. An examination of recent non-clinical panic attacks, panic disorder, anxiety sensitivity, and emo-tion regulation difficulties in the prediction of generalized anxiety disorder in an analogue sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2009; 23(2):275–82. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.08.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.08.002]
37. Tortella-Feliu M, Balle M, Sesé A. Relationships between negative affectivity, emotion regulation, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents as ex-amined through structural equation modeling. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2010; 24(7):686–93. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.04.012 [DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.04.012]
38. Marroquín B. Interpersonal emotion regulation as a mechanism of social support in depression. Clinical Psychology Review. 2011; 31(8):1276–90. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.09.005 [DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.09.005]
39. Garnefski N, Teerds J, Kraaij V, Legerstee J, van den Kommer T. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: Differences between males and females. Personality and Individual Differences. 2004; 36(2):267–76. doi: 10.1016/s0191-8869(03)00083-7 [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00083-7]
40. Mathews BL, Kerns KA, Ciesla JA. Specificity of emotion regulation difficulties related to anxiety in early adolescence. Journal of Adolescence. 2014; 37(7):1089–97. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.08.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.08.002]
41. Min JA, Yu JJ, Lee CU, Chae JH. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies contributing to resilience in patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2013; 54(8):1190–7. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.05.008 [DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.05.008]
42. Salsman JM, Brown TL, Brechting EH, Carlson CR. The link between religion and spirituality and psychological adjustment: the mediating role of opti-mism and social support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2005; 31(4):522–35. doi: 10.1177/0146167204271563 [DOI:10.1177/0146167204271563]
43. La Greca AM, Silverman WK, Vernberg EM, Prinstein MJ. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress in children after Hurricane Andrew: A prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1996; 64(4):712–23. doi: 10.1037/0022-006x.64.4.712 [DOI:10.1037/0022-006X.64.4.712]
44. Spirito A, Stark LJ, Williams C. Development of a brief coping checklist for use with pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1988; 13(4):555–74. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/13.4.555 [DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/13.4.555]
45. Feldman GC, Barrett L, Gross J. Knowing what you are feeling and knowing what to do about it: Mapping the relation between emotion differentiation and emotion regulation. Cognition and Emotion. 2001; 15(6):713-24. doi: 10.1080/02699930143000239 [DOI:10.1080/02699930143000239]

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