Volume 24, Issue 1 (Spring 2018)                   IJPCP 2018, 24(1): 44-55 | Back to browse issues page


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mohammadzadeh A, ashouri A. Comparison of Personality Correlates of Machiavellianism, Narcissism and Psychopathy (Dark Triad of Personality) in Three Factor Personality Model. IJPCP. 2018; 24 (1) :44-55
URL: http://ijpcp.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2426-en.html
1- PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor Department of Psychology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2- PhD in Clinical Psychology, Assistant Professor Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health (Tehran Institute of Psychiatry), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , Email: ahmad.ashouri@gmail.com
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Extended Abstract
1. Introduction

Among socially aversive personality traits that pointed out by Kowalski [1], three have attracted the most empirical attention from the research context: Machiavellianism, Narcissism and Psychopathy. Despite their diverse routs, the personalities composing Dark Triad share a number of charectristics. All three entail asocially malevolent character with behavior tendencies toward self-promo-tion, emotional coldness, duplicity, and aggressiveness [2]. Based on the literature, especially in non-clinical groups, evidence suggests overlapping between Machiavellianism, narcissistic and antisocial personality [2-5]. It seems that individuals with dark personality traits have traits that can be considered from the general traits of personality characteristics. 
The measurement of the normal and abnormal dimensions of personality traits has a long history. One of these credible systems is based on the self-report belong to Eisenck’s theory and his three-dimensional perspective of personality. These three dimensions of personality are: extraversion versus introversion, neuroticism versus emotional stability, psychoticim versus impulse control [6]
To date, there has been afew research on the relationships between personality trait and the Dark Triad. In the few studies carried out on the basis of the five-factor model, Paulhus and Williams [2] as well as Jakobwitz and Egan [3] showed that agreeableness tend to have negatively higher correlations with Machiavellianism, narcissistic and antisocial personality. This study explored the relationships of those personalities with three factor personality models.
2. Methods
The study was a descriptive-analytical study. The study population consisted of all Tabriz Payame Noor University students in the academic year of 2014-15. Stratified random sampling was used to select the subjects. 
Given the nature of research and considering the adequacy of subject numbers in the research, the sample size was set at 203 (Average age=29.10 years, SD=7.6). Male mean age was 31.53, SD=7.63, (N=58). Female mean age was 28.17, SD=7.45 (N=145). For data analysis, stepwise multiple regression analy­sis was performed using SPSS 21 software. Research tools included MACH-IV, MCMI-II and EPQ-R personality questionnaires.
3. Results
Pearson correlation coefficient was used in order to explore the relationship between the dimensions of personality traits and dark triad personality. These results are summarized in Table 1.
As the dark triad personality dimension appeared to vary by Eysenck personality traits, we used multiple regression analysis models. Tables 2, 3 and 4 show the results of the triple analysis results. According to Table 4, regression analysis results showed that in first step the entrance of Neuroticism can significantly explain 21% of Machiavellianism vari­ances. In the second step, Psychoticism can raise this amount to 23%.


According to Table 3, regression analysis results showed that in first step the entrance of Psychoticism can significantly explain 3% of narcissism vari­ances. In the second step, extraversion can raise this amount to 7%. According to Table 3, regression analysis results showed that in first step the entrance of Psychoticism can significantly explain 18% of Psychopathy vari­ances. In the second step, extraversion can raise this amount to 26%.
4. Discussion
The results of this study showed that, based on Eisenck's three-factor model: 1. The Machiavellianism personality has a positive relationship with neuroticism and Psychoticism. It seems that the important characteristics of Machiavellianism personality are high neuroticism, and this may explain some of their features, such as the overcoming of negative affect, alexithymic and anhedonic states, which are also seen in a wide range of neurotic disorders. This finding is consistent with the findings of McHoskey [7] Ali et al [8]. Characteristics such as the lack of emotional involvement with others and the emotional detachment of the Machiavellian personality, described by Wrightsman [9], are well suited to Eysenck’s concept of psychoticism. 
2. The Narcissitic personality has a positive relationship with psychoticism and extraversion. Psychoticism inlcude features such as emotional coldness, antisocial behavior, and disability in empathy with others and seems to be more closely associated with the characteristics of narcissistic personality. The positive relationship between narcissism and extraversion found in the present study is consistent with earlier studies which have suggested that high extraversion and low agreeableness are characteristic of narcissistic people [10-13].
3. The antisocial personality has a positive relationship with neuroticism and Psychoticism. The relationship between antisocial personality and Eisench’s Psychoticism was completely expected, because the Eysenck Psychoticism scale measures mainly antisocial tendencies [14]. Also, the tendency to experience negative emotions in a neuroticism can be explained by some antisocial personality syndromes. The findings of this section of the study are consistent with the results of previous studies [2-5]. In a summing up, the dark dimension of personality can be described in terms of high psychoticism, according to three factor personality model. 
The present study was limited in two respects; one was that research tools were long-term and this issue may have affected the results by introducing fatigue in the participants. Second, the study was conducted in a non-clinical sample, since clinical patients with personality disorders were not present in this study, this limitation should be considered in generalizing the results, based on this, it is recommended that the results of this study be investigated in these groups.
Acknowledgments
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The students of Payame Noor University of Tabriz, who helped us in this research, are appreciated. 
Conflict of Interest 
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
 
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Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: General
Received: 2017/01/9 | Accepted: 2017/10/30 | Published: 2018/04/1

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